L'Air Force est aujourd'hui prête à admettre que de nombreuses observations de soucoupes et de
boules lumineuses continuent à défier toute explication ; LIFE offre ici des preuves scientifiques qu'il existe une
réelle possibilité de soucoupes interplanétaires.
Durant 4 ans le public américain s'est interrogé, inquiété ou [smirked] sur les contes étranges et insistants
d'objets eerie fusant à travers le ciel américain. Généralement les contes ont seulement provoqué des frissons ou des
[titters], mais seulement rarement, une réflexion et une analyse.
La semaine dernière l'U.S. Air Force a porté à la connaissance de LIFE les faits suivants :
Suite aux rapports continus de soucoupes volantes l'Air Force maintient une enquêêétude de renseignement
constante des objets aériens non-identifiés.
Une politique d'action positive a été adoptée pour découvrir, dès que possible, ce qui est responsable des
observations qui ont été faites. Dans le cadre de cette étude, les appareils militaires sont altertés pour tenté des
interceptions, et les équipement radar et photographiques seront utilisés pour tenter d'obtenir des données
factuelles. Si l'opportunité en est donné, des tentatives seront faites pour récupérer de tels objets
Toutes les unités opérationnelles de l'Air Force ont déjà été alertées pour rapporter en détails toute
observation d'objets aériens non-identifiés. D'autres groupes ? scientifiques, pilotes privés ou commerciaux,
observateurs météo ? tous observateurs entraînés dont le travail touche de quelque façon au ciel, et quoi qu'il s'y
passe, sont vivement incités à faire des rapports immédiats au Centre
de Renseignement Technique de l'Air à Wright-Patterson AFB, Dayton,
Ohio de tout objet aérien non-identifié qu'il aient vu.
Par la suite, pour la 1ère fois depuis le projet "Soucoupe" ait été modifié d'un projet de type spécial en une
fonction standard du renseignement, en 1949-12, l'Air Force invite l'ensemble des citoyens à signaler leurs
observations à l'installation de l'Air Force la plus proche. Tous les rapports recevront l'attention des experts et
ceux d'un intérêt parêr feront l'objet d'enquêtes pouss&eês. L'identité de ceux faisant de tels rapports sera gardée
confidentielle ; personne ne sera ridiculisé pour en avoir fait un.
Il n'y a pour l'instant aucune raison de croire qu'aucun des phénomènes aériens régulièrement décrits comme des
soucoupes volantes soient causées par une puissance étrangère ou constitue un danger clair et présent pour les
Etats-Unis ou ses citoyens.
Ces révélations, sharply amending past Air Force policy, climaxed a review by LIFE, with Air Force officials, of all
facts known in the case. This review has resulted from more than a year of sifting and weighting all reports of
unexplained aerial phenomena ? from the so-called flying saucers to the mysterious green fireballs so often sighted in
the Southwest (above ? main picture). This inquiry has included scrutiny of hundreds of reported sightings, interview
with eyewitnesses across the country and careful reviews of the facts with some of the world's ablest physicists,
astronomers, and experts on guided missiles. for the first time the Air Force (while in no way identifying itself with
any particular conclusions) has opened its files for study.
Out of this exhaustive inquiry these propositions seem firmly shaped by the evidence:
Disks, cylinders and similar objects of geometrical form, luminous quality and solid nature for several years
have been, and may be now, actually present in the atmosphere of the earth.
Globes of green fire also, of a brightness more intense than the full moon's, have frequently passed through the
These objects cannot be explained by present science as natural phenomena ? but solely as artificial devices,
created and operated by a high intelligence.
Finally, no power plant known or projected on earth could account for the performance of these devices.
Let us first review some widely known facts.
The shapes and inscrutable portents of the flying disks first broke upon the skies of the world in the early months
of 1947, with several sightings reported to the Air Force. the story first reached the nation on June 24, 1947, when a
private pilot named Kenneth Arnold was flying from Chehalis to Yakima, Wash. Some 25 miles away, Arnold saw nine
"saucerlike things ... flying like geese in a diagonal chainlike line," approaching Mount Rainier. They swerved in and
out of the high peaks at a speed Arnold estimated to be 1200 miles/h.
Arnold told the whole story to his hometown newspaper, and like summer lightning it flashed across the country.
Within a month, saucers had been reported by people in 40 states. For the public (as LIFE itself merrily reported in
its issue of July 21, 1947) the saucers provided the biggest game of hey-diddle-diddle in history. Any man, woman, or
child with talent enough to see spots before his eyes could get his name in the newspaper.
Nevertheless in serious moments most people were a little worried by all the "chromium hubcaps," "flying washtubs"
and "whirling doughnuts" in the sky. Buried in the heap of hysterical reports were some sobering cases. One was the
calamity that befell Air Force Captain Thomas F. Mantell on Jan. 7, 1948. That afternoon Mantell and two other F-51
fighter pilots sighted an object that looked like an ice-cream cone topped with red over Godman Air Force Base
and Fort Knox, Ky. Mantell followed the strange object up to 20000 feet and disappeared. Later in the day his body was
found in a nearby field, the wreckage of his plane scattered for a half mile around. It now seems possible that
Mantell was one of the very few sighters who actually were deceived by a Skyhook balloon, but the incident is still
listed as unsolved by the Air Force files.
There was no such easy explanation for the strange phenomenon observed at 2:45 a.m. on July 24, 1948 by two Eastern
Air Lines pilots. Captain Clarence S. Chiles and
Copilot John B. Whitted were flying in bright moonlight near Montgomery, Ala. when they suddenly saw a bright
glow and a "long rocketlike ship" veer past them. They subsequently agreed that it was a wingless aircraft,
100 feet long, cigar-shaped and about twice the diameter of a B-29, with no protruding surfaces, and two rows of
windows ... From the sides of the craft came an intense, fairly dark blue glow ... like a fluorescent factory
light. They said the weird craft pulled up with tremendous burst of flame from the rear and zoomed into the
clouds at about 800 miles an hour, rocking their DC-3 with its prop or jet wash.
Just as inexplicable was the experience of Lieut. George Gorman of the North Dakota Air National Guard. On Oct. 1,
1948 Gorman was coming in at dusk to land his F-51 at Fargo, when he saw an intense, bright light pass 1000 yards
away. Curious, Gorman followed the light and saw that it seemed to be attached to nothing. for 27 hair-raising minutes
Gorman pursued the light through a series of intricate maneuvers. He said it was about 6 inches in diameter and going
faster than his F-51 (300-400 mph). It made no sound and left no exhaust trail. After Gorman landed, the light having
suddenly flashed away in the upper air, he found support for his story -- the chief of the control tower had followed
the fantastic "combat" with binoculars.
The occurrences, jarring though they must have been to the participants, left the official calm of the Air Force
unruffled. The project set up to investigate the saucers ("Project
Sign," known to the press as "Project Saucer") seemed to have been fashioned more as a sedative to public
controversy than as a serious inquiry into the facts. On Dec. 27, 1949, after two years of operation, Project Saucer
wrote off all reports of unidentified aerial phenomena as hoaxes, hallucinations or misinterpretations of familiar
objects -- that is, all but 34. These stubborn 34, seemingly unexplainable, were briskly dismissed as psychological
While these assurances appeased most of the press and pacified the public, some elements in the Air Force just about
this time began to worry a bit more seriously. Saucer reports continued to come in a rate of about one a day and were
handled under the code name of "Project Grudge." Officers at policy level began to show concern. The higher you go
in the Air Force, conceded one Intelligence officer, the more seriously they take the flying saucers.
There was good reason to be serious. As review of all records has shown, these years have produced literally dozens
of incidents defying simple explanation -- and provoking the most incredible questions.
Checked and rechecked, 10 cases out of the formidable list on record are here presented in essential detail. Of
these, three wee discovered in the course of LIFE's own investigation and are reported for the first time.
["Lumières de Lubbock"] le samedi 25 août 1951 à 21:10,
le Dr. W. I. Robinson, professeur de géologie à la Faculté de Technoloie du Texas, se tenait dans le jardin de sa
maison à Lubbock (Texas) et discutait avec 2 collègues. Les autres hommes étaient le Dr.
A. G. Oberg, un professeur d'ingéniérie chimique, et le professeur W. L. Ducker, directeur du département
d'ingéniérie pétrolifère. La nuit était claire et sombre. Soudain l'ensemble des 3 hommes vit un certain nombre de
lumières foncer sans bruit à travers le ciel, d'horizon en horizon, en quelques secondes. the donna l'impression
d'environ 30 perles lumineuses, arrangées en forme de croissant. Quelques instants plus tard une autre formation
semblable fonça à travers la nuit. Cette fois les scientifiques purent juger que les lumières s'étaient déplacées
sur 30 ° d'arc en 1 s. Une vérification le lendemain auprès de l'Air Force montra qu'aucun avion ne s'était trouvé
au-dessus de la région à ce moment. This was but the beginning: Professor Ducker observed 12 flights of the luminous
objects between August and November of last year. Some of his colleagues observed as many as 10. Hundreds of
nonscientific observers in a wide vicinity around Lubbock have seen as many as three flights of the mysterious
crescents in one night. On the night of Aug. 30 an attempt to photograph the lights was made by 18-year old Carl
Hart Jr. He used a Kodak 35-mm camera at f 3.5, 1/10 of a second. Working rapidly, Hart managed to get five
exposures of the flights. The pictures exhibited by Hart as the result of this effort show 18 to 20 luminous
objects, more intense than the planet Venus, arranged in one or a pair of crescents. In several photographs, off to
one side of the main flight, a larger luminosity is visible -- like a mother craft hovering near its aerial brood.
Evaluation : The observations have been too numerous and too similar to be doubted. In addition the
Air Force, after the closest examination, has found nothing fraudulent about Hart's pictures. The lights are much
too bright to be reflections, and therefore bodies containing sources of light. Since Professors Ducker, Oberg, and
Robinson could not measure the size and distance of the formations, they could form no precise estimate of their
speed. However they calculated that if the lights were flying at an altitude of 5000 feet they must then have been
traveling about 1800 mph. The professors, along with other scientists, agree that in order to explain the silence of
the objects, it must be assumed that they were at 50000 feet in the air; in which case they were going not 1800 but
18000 mph. [Note: See follow-up letter from professors at end questioning authenticity of Hart's photos.]
Le jeudi 10 juillet 1947 à 16:47, one of the U.S.'s top astronomers was driving from Clovis to Clines Corners
(Nouveau-Mexique) [Note : Later revealed to be Dr. Lincoln La Paz -- see Incident 10,
green fireballs, which La Paz investigated.] His wife and his teen-aged daughters were also in the car. (For
professional reasons he has asked LIFE to withhold identity.) It was a bright sunny day, but the whole western half
of the sky was a confused cloud sea. All at once, as the car headed toward these clouds, all four of us
almost simultaneously became aware of a curious bright object almost motionless among the clouds. Instantly,
from long habit in dealing with celestial phenomena, he began to make calculations. with what crude materials he had
at hand. He held a pencil at arm's length, measured the size of the object against the windshield of the car,
measured the distance between his eyes and the windshield, etc. His wife and two daughters did the same, each making
independent calculations. The object, says the scientist, showed a sharp and firm regular outline, namely one of
a smooth elliptical character much harder and sharper than the edges of the cloudlets... The hue of the luminous
object was somewhat less white than the light of Jupiter in a dark sky, not aluminum or silver-colored.... The
object clearly exhibited a sort of wobbling motion.... This wobbling motion served to set off the object as a
rigid, if not solid body. After 30 seconds in plain view, the ellipsoid moved slowly behind a cloud (273 °
azimuth. élévation 1 °) and we thought we had lost it. But approximately five seconds later it reappeared
(275 ° azimuth, elevation 2 °). This remarkably sudden ascent thoroughly convinced me that we were dealing with
an absolutely novel airborne device. After reappearing, the object moved slowly from south to north across the
clouds. As seen projected against these dark clouds, the object gave the strongest impression of
self-luminosity. About two and a half minutes after it first came into view, the thing disappeared finally
behind a cloudbank.
Evaluation : The astronomer vouches for the approximate accuracy of his observations and
computations. He determined that the object was not less than 20 nor more than 30 miles from his viewing point; that
it was ellipsoidal and rigid; that it was 160 feet long and 65 feet thick, if seen at minimum distance; or 245 feet
long and 100 feet thick if at maximum; and that its horizontal speed ranged between 120 and 180 mph and its vertical
rise between 600 and 900 mph. He also observed that the object moved with a wobble, no sounds, and left no exhaust
or vapor trail. His wife and daughters support his observations, and their computations were in accordance with his
own, though slightly less conservative. The object's appearance and behavior answer no known optical or celestial
phenomenon. No known or projected aircraft, rocket or guided missile can make such a rapid vertical ascent without
leaving an exhaust or vapor trail.
Le dimanche 24 avril 1949 à 10:20, un groupe de 5 techniciens under the general supervision of J. Gordon Vaeth, an
aeronautical engineer employed by the Office of Naval Research, were preparing to launch a Skyhook balloon near
Arrey, N. Mex. A small balloon was sent up first to check the weather. Charles B. Moore Jr., an aerologist of
General Mills Inc. (pioneers in cosmic ray research) was tracking the weather balloon through a theodolite -- a
25-power telescopic instrument, which gives degrees of azimuth and elevation (horizontal and vertical position) for
any object it is sighted on. At 10:30 a.m. Moore leaned back from the theodolite to glance at the balloon with his
naked eye. Suddenly he saw a whitish elliptical object, apparently much higher than the balloon, and moving, in the
opposite direction. At once he picked the object up in his theodolite at 45 degrees of elevation and 210 degrees of
azimuth, and tracked it east at the phenomenal rate of 5 d of azimuth-change per second as it dropped swiftly to an
elevation of 25 d. The Object appeared to be an ellipsoid roughly two and a half times as long as it was wide.
Suddenly it swung abruptly upward and rushed out of sight in a few seconds. Moore had tracked it for about 60
seconds altogether. The other members of his crew confirmed his report. No sound was heard, no vapor trail was seen.
The object, according to rough estimations by Moore and his colleagues, was about 56 miles above the earth, 100 feet
long and was traveling at seven miles per second. [Note: This is the same Charles B. Moore who is now debunking the
Roswell UFO crash object of June/July 1947 as nothing more than one of his secret Mogul balloons that he helped
EVALUATION. No known optical or atmospheric phenomenon fits the facts. A natural object traveling at seven miles
per second has never been seen to make a sudden upward turn. There is no known or projected source of silent,
vaporless power for such a machine. No human being could have borne the tremendous "G" load brought to bear on the
craft during its abrupt vertical veer.
One night in the summer of 1948 Clyde W. Tombaugh, the discoverer of the planet Pluto, was sitting in the back yard
of his home at Las, Cruces, N. Mex. With him were his wife and his mother-in-law. It was about 11 p.m. and they were
all sitting quietly, admiring the clarity of the southwestern sky, like any proper astronomical family. All at once
they all saw something rush silently overhead, south to north, too fast for a plane, too slow for a meteor. -It seemed
to be quite low. All three of the witnesses agreed that the object was definitely a solid "ship" of a kind they had
never seen before. It was of an oval shape and "seemed to trail off at the rear into a shapeless luminescence." There
was a blue-green glow about the whole thing. About half a dozen "windows" were clearly visible at the front of the
ship and along the side. They glowed with the same blue-green color as the rest of the ship, only the glare was
brighter, and had a touch of yellow in it. [Note: Tombaugh also had two other UFO sightings]
In this case LIFE's informant is an Air Force officer who holds a top military post at a key atomic base. [Note:
Thought to be in New Mexico] Since his assignment and whereabouts must be kept a secret he has asked LIFE to withhold
his name. He has the highest security rating given. Before he took his present assignment, this officer was in command
of the radar equipment that keeps watch over a certain atomic installation. One day in the fall of 1949, while
watching a radarscope that covered an area of sky 300 miles wide and 100,000 feet deep, he was startled to detect five
apparently metallic objects flying south at tremendous speed and great height. They crossed the 300-mile scope, in
less than four minutes. The objects flew the whole time in formation.
EVALUATION. There is no dead-certain explanation of this phenomenon--radar is as full of tricks as an old-maid's
imagination. However, the officer involved is an experienced observer, well aware of the eccentricities of the
instrument. He believes that in this instance he made a legitimate radar contact. If so, it can be said that the only
natural objects known to travel at such a speed are meteors, but meteors do not fly in formation. If the officer
picked up machines, they were performing in a manner that rocket experts agree is still beyond the capabilities of
earth's most advanced weapons.
On May 29, 1951 at 3:48 p.m., three technical writers for the aerophysics department of North American Aviation's
plant at Downey, outside Los Angeles, were chatting on the factory grounds. They were Victor Black, Werner Eichler and
Ed J. Sullivan. All at once they stared at the sky. Sullivan describes what they saw: "Approximately 30 glowing,
meteorlike objects sprayed out of the east at a point about 45 degrees above the horizon, executed a right-angle turn
and swept across the sky in an undulating vertical formation ... that resembled a tuning fork on edge. It took each of
them about 25 seconds to cross 90 degrees of the horizon before performing another right-angle turn westward toward
downtown Los Angeles.... We estimated their diameter at 30 feet and their speed to be 1,700 mph. Each appeared as an
intense electric blue light, round and without length. They moved with the motion of flat stones skipping across a
EVALUATION. No known natural or optical phenomenon, makes the peculiar light, in bright day, attributed to these
objects by Sullivan and his colleagues; nor can any natural object, hurtling at such a speed, execute a right angle
turn. As in the Moore theodolite sighting, the execution of such a turn would have crushed any human crew under the
impact of "G" forces. Finally, of course, no known machine travels at 1,700 mph without making a sound or leaving an
exhaust or vapor trail.
[Légende de Photo :
[Photo shows drawing of UFO formation, which looked something like this:]
Le samedi 20 janvier 1951 à 20:30, le capitaine Lawrence W. Vinther of Mid-Continent Airlines was ordered by the
control tower at the Sioux City airport, to investigate a very bright light above the field. He took off in his
DC-3 with his copilot, James F. Bachmeier, and followed the light. All at once the light dived at the DC-3 almost head
on; it passed silently and at great speed about 200 feet above its nose. Both pilots wrenched their heads back to see
where it had gone, only to discover that the thing had somehow reversed direction in a split second and was now flying
parallel to the airliner heading in the same direction. It was a clear moonlight night and both men got a good look at
the object. It was as big or bigger than a B-29, had a cigar-shaped fuselage and a glider-type wing, set well forward,
without sweepback and without engine nacelles or jet pods. There was not exhaust glow. The white light appeared to be
recessed in the bottom of the plane. After a few seconds the object lost altitude, passed under the DC-3 and
disappeared. A civilian employee of Air Intelligence was a passenger on the flight, saw the object and confirms the
description by the pilots.
Evaluation : The conditions for observation were excellent. One fact alone --the astonishing
reversal of direction performed by the object--suffices to classify it as a device far beyond the known capacities of
aeronautical science. Although its shape is different, the soundlessness of the object and the absence of observable
means of propulsion relate it to the saucer class of phenomena.
A lundi 18 février 1952 à 06:45, juste avant le lever du Soleil , un photographe nommé C. E. Redman conduisant dans
Albuquerque (Nouveau-Mexique) en route pour photographier un mariage. Arrêté à un fêe, il remarqua 2 choses brillantes
dans le ciel. Elles étaient au-dessus du Canyon de Tijeras... Celle au Nord était sur son bord. L'autre s'étendait
horizontalement. Elles étaient brillantes, d'un blanc bleuté... C'était probablement la chose la plus étonnante que
j'avais jamais vue. Ces choses étaient sans bruit. Il n'y avait ni réacteurs ni traînées de vapeur. J'ai vu des
centaines d'avions à réaction et de traînées de vapeur. Redman fut interrogé plus tard le jour même par un
journaliste de Life et un scientifique proéminent, travaillant ensemble. De ce témoignage, et d'après la
configuration du terrain, il a été estimé que les disques étaient éloignés de 20 miles et à 4 miles dans les airs, et
qu'ils avaient un diamètre de 136 pieds. Un autre témoin vit les mêmes objets que Redman avait vu, etêcirc;me moment,
mais depuis un autre côtê; de la ville. W. S. Morris, un sergent-chef à la retraîte de l'Air Force qui est aujourd'hui
distributeur de journaux à Albuquerque, était dehors pour jeter ses journaux du matin lorsqu'il vit 2 objets étranges
au-dessus du Canyon de Tijeras. Je les ai regardés pendant décembre. They were a blinding silver, long and
thin, gleaming all over. They hovered, one kind of above the other to the right. They seemed brighter than the sun,
which wasn't yet over the Sandia mountains. It just touched their bottoms and they glowed red. They didn't flutter
or move. They just hung there. It must have been 20 miles away. Then they just suddenly dropped down behind the
mountain, and the upper one tilted so that I could see its profile. It looked like a bell pepper-with a bump on top,
Evaluation : La base de Kirtland confirma qu'il
n'y avait aucun appareil dans cette zone à ce moment-là. Les observations se renforcent l'une-l'autre et point to
several striking facts. D'abord, un disque proved itself three dimensional when it tilted, to descend. Second, the
suddenness of the disk's descent indicates that the bodies contained a source of power. Third, the power that can
suspend a three-dimensional body, of the size Morris describes and in the position he indicates, without turning a
blade or roaring a jet, is unknown.
Le dimanche 29 janvier, a B-29 was on solo mission over Wonsan, Korea. It was flying at a
speed somewhat less than 200 miles/h, at an altitude somewhat above 20 000 pieds. Simultaneously the tail gunner and
the fire-control man in the waist saw a bright round orange object in the sky near the plane. Both said it was about
three feet in diameter, flew with a revolving motion on a course parallel to theirs, and wore a halo of bluish flame.
It also appeared to pulsate. The object followed the B-29 for about five minutes, then pulled ahead and shot away at a
sharp angle. On the same night a similar globe was seen by the tail gunner and waist man of another B-29, 80 miles
away over Sunchon, but flying at about the same height. The globe followed the plane for about a minute, then
Evaluation : Theoreticians in the Air Force believe the fireballs were not natural phenomena but
propelled objects. They bear some similarity to the balls of fire called "fireball fighters" or "foo fighters" --
which flew wing on Allied aircraft over Germany and Japan during 1944-45 and which have never been satisfactorily
explained. In the Korean incidents, the fireballs seem -- on the evidence of their sharp acceleration, their blue
light and their abrupt, angular swerve -- to resemble the saucers described earlier.
Dans la nuit du 2 Novembre 1951 a ball of kelly-green fire, larger than the moon, and
blazing several times more brightly, flashed eastward across the skies of Arizona. It raced, straight as a bullet,
parallel to the ground, and then exploded in a frightful paroxysm of light --- without making a sound. At least 165
people saw the incredible thing; hundreds more witnessed the similar flight of countless other fireballs that since
Décembre 1948 have bathed the hills of the Southwest in their lunar glare. In the last year they
have been seen as far afield as Pennsylvania, Maryland and Puerto Rico. The chief Air Intelligence officer for the
Albuquerque district saw one. Colonel Joseph D. Caldara, USAF, attached to the Joint Chiefs of Staff, saw one in
Virginia. Hundreds of pilots, weather observers and atomic scientists have sighted them. Reports came so thick and
fast during 1948 that in 1949 the Air Force established
"Project Twinkle" to investigate them. Project Twinkle
established a triple phototheodolite post at Vaughn, N. Mex. to obtain scientific data on the fireballs. Day and
night, week in, week out, for three months, a crew kept vigil. Ironically, while fireballs continued flashing
everywhere else in the Southwest, they saw nothing until the project was transferred to the Holloman Air Force Base at
Alamogordo, N. Mex. There, during another three-month siege, they saw a few but were unable to make satisfactory
computations because of the fireballs' great-speed. Search parties have had no better luck. They have combed in vain
the countryside beneath the point of disappearance; not a trace of telltale substance has been found on the ground.
Evaluation : The popular Southwest belief that a strange meteor shower was underway has been blasted
by Dr. Lincoln La Paz, mathematician, astronomer and director
of the Institute of Meteoritics at the University of New Mexico. He points out that normal fireballs do not appear
green, they fall in the trajectory forced on them by gravity, are generally noisy as a freight train, and leave
meteorites where they hit. The green New Mexican species does none of these things. Neither do the green fireballs
appear to be electrostatic phenomena -- they move too regularly and too fast.
If the fireballs are the product of a U.S. weapons project, as some Southwesterners believe, it is a very secret one
indeed: the Atomic Energy Commission and every other government agency connected with weapons development has denied
to LIFE any responsibility for the fireballs.
Could they be self-destroying Russian reconnaissance devices? Not likely. While the U.S. believes the Russians have
an intercontinental guided missile, there is no intelligence that indicates they have developed silent power plants or
objects capable of moving nearly as fast as meteors (12 miles a second). Yet--for whatever it may be worth--the only
reports of green fireballs prior to 1948 came from the Baltic area. [Note: The 1946 Scandinavian "Ghost Rockets," 200
of them on radar]
If the fireballs do not respond to gravity, they could only be explained as lighter-than-air craft or electrical
phenomena--but they have characteristics which rule these out. Therefore they must be propelled. If propelled and not
natural phenomena, they must be artificial. The extreme greenness of the fireballs has impressed most witnesses. When
asked to indicate the approximate color on a spectrum chart, most of them have touched the band at 5,200 angstroms,
close to the green of burning copper. Copper is almost never found in meteorites; the friction of the air oxidizes it
shortly after the meteor enters the upper atmosphere. However, a curious fact has been recorded by aerologists.
Concentrations of copper particles are now present in the air of Arizona and New Mexico, particularly in "fireball
areas." These were not encountered in air samples made before 1948.
Ce qu'ils ne sont pas -- Et ce qu'ils pourraient être
What are the flying saucers, the luminous fuselages, the foo fighters and the green fireballs? The answer -- if any
answer at this time is possible -- lies in the field of logic rather than of evidence. What the things are may be
adduced partially by reviewing what they are not.
THEY ARE NOT PSYCHOLOGICAL PHENOMENA. Although the Air Force cheerily wrote off its 34 unexplained incidents with
this pat theory, the explanation does not hold up. There is no evidence, beyond textbook speculation, for such a
supposition, and there is the direct evidence already cited against it. To doubt the observers in the foregoing cases
is to doubt the ability of every human being to know a hawk from a handsaw.
THEY ARE NOT THE PRODUCT OF U.S. RESEARCH. LIFE investigated this possibility to exhaustion. Not fully satisfied by
the public denials of President Truman, Secretary Johnson and others, the investigators put the question directly to
Gordon Dean, chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission. He said: There's nothing in our shop that could account for
these things, and there's nothing going on that I know of that could explain them. Still unconvinced, LIFE
checked the whereabouts and present business of every scientist who might have anything to do with the development of
superaircraft. All were accounted for in other ways. Careful feelers through the business and labor world encountered
no submerged projects of the immensity necessary to build a fleet of flying disks. And there is still the conclusive
fact: U.S. science has at its command no source of power that could put a flying machine through such paces as the
THEY ARE NOT A RUSSIAN DEVELOPMENT. It is inconceivable that the Russians would risk the loss of such a precious
military weapon by flying a saucer over enemy territory. No man-made machine is foolproof; sooner or later one would
crash in the U.S. and the secret would be out. Nor is there any reason to believe that Russian science, even with
German help, has moved beyond not only the practical but the THEORETICAL horizons of U.S. research.
THEY ARE NOT DISTORTIONS OF THE ATMOSPHERE RESULTING FROM ATOMIC ACTIVITY. To quote the answer David Lilienthal,
former AEC commissioner, once made to that suggestion: I can't prevent anyone
from saying foolish things. Nor are they aberrations of the northern lights. Magnetic disturbances cannot
account for them and neither can a notion (recently fathered by Dr. Urner Liddel, the Navy physicist) that they are
vertical mirages -- reflections from a vertical (instead of a horizontal) layer of heated air.
THEY ARE NOT SKYHOOK BALLOONS. This was the, original Liddel explanation, and in a few instances it may have been
correct. But not many. They could scarcely be fireflies in the cockpit, as one Air Force colonel suggested,
since most of the observers were no in a cockpit when they saw their saucers. And it is hard to believe that saucers
could be the reflections of automobile headlights on clouds, when they are seen in daylight under cloudless skies.
These being the dead-end alleys of negative evidence, is there hope of an explanation on the open avenues of
scientific theory? The answer is yes.
The rank of science his taken the saucers far more seriously than the file of laymen and, after five years of close
watch on all reports, a number of scientists were ready with some conclusions. One of these was Dr. Walther Riedel,
once chief designer and research director at the German rocket center in Peenemunde, now engaged on secret work for
the U.S. Dr. Riedel has never seen a saucer himself, but for several years he has kept records of saucer sightings all
over the world. He told LIFE: I am completely convinced that they have an out-of-world basis.
Dr. Riedel has four points to his argument: First, the skin temperatures of structures operating under the
observed conditions would make it impossible for any terrestrial structure to survive. The skin friction of the
missile at those speeds at those altitudes would melt any metals or nonmetals available.
Second, consider the high acceleration at which they fly and maneuver... In some descriptions the beast spirals
straight up. If you think of the fact that the centrifugal force in a few minutes of such a maneuver would press the
crew against the outside, and do likewise to the blood, you see what I mean.
Third.... There are many occurrences where they have done things that only a pilot could perform but that no human
pilot could stand.
Fourth, in most of the reports there is a lack of visible jet. Most observers report units without visible flame .
. . and no trail. If it would be any known type of jet, rocket, piston engine, or chain-reaction motor, there would be
a very clear trail at high altitude. It is from no power unit we know of . . .
Dr. Riedel's arguments are reinforced by those of Dr. Maurice A. Biot, one of the leading aerodynamicists in the
U.S. and a prominent mathematical physicist. From an aerodynamical viewpoint, says Dr. Biot, the saucer shape makes
very little sense if the machine is to travel in the atmosphere. A disk has a high drag and is a poor airfoil unless
stabilized; when whirled at high speed through the air, it "wobbles" distressingly -- a movement observed in several
of the saucers sighted. However, for space travel, where there is no atmosphere to oppose, the disk has significant
advantages. The sphere, theoretically better, presents several difficult problems of construction and utilization. The
disk, easier to build, has almost all the virtues of the sphere and some of its own. Reviewing the evidence presented
here, Dr. Biot said: The least improbable explanation is that these things are artificial and controlled. ...My
opinion for some time has been that they have an extraterrestrial origin.
Qui ? Quoi ? Et Quand ?
There, at least, is a plausible explanation of the disk shape. But the real depths of the saucer mystery bemuse
penetration, as the night sky swallows up a flashlight beam. What of the other shapes? Why do the things make no
sound? How to explain their eerie luminosity? What power urges them at such terrible speeds through the sky? Who, or
what, is aboard? Where do they come from? Why are they here? What are the intentions of the beings who control
Before these awesome questions, science -- and mankind -- can yet only halt in wonder. Answers may come in a
generation -- or tomorrow. Somewhere in the dark skies there may be those who know.
----------------------------------------------------------------------- April 28, 1952: Letters to the Editor
Visiteurs de l'espace ?
Sirs: "Have We Visitors from Space?" (LIFE, April 7) is the most comprehensive report I have read on the
subject. I was very closely associated with Projects "Twinkle" and "Grudge" at Alamogordo, N. Mex. where I was chief
of the technical photographic facility at Holloman Air Force base. I have seen several of these objects myself, and
they are everything you say they are as to shape, size and speed.
Daniel A. McGovern Captain, USAF Alexandria, Va.
Sirs: I first learned about the green fireballs from Marine Corps night fighter pilots while I was an aviation
intelligence officer in Korea. Pilots often reported seeing strange bright green objects in the skies, unlike
anything they had ever seen before, and moving too fast and regularly to be explained or identified or analyzed by the
pilots themselves or the intelligence officers.
Edward A. Kolar Captain, USMCR Tenafly, N.J.
Sirs: LIFE has again rendered a distinct service to its readers. The authors' painstaking work in compiling and
evaluating known data has made a case for interplanetary space ships which is entirely logical and sensible.
Donald J. Falvey Deep River, Conn.
[A few letters deleted]
Sirs: As observers of the Lubbock lights, we feel the record requires that we point out that the groups of
objects shown in the Hart photographs are, in these respects, essentially different from any of the 12 or more groups
that we sighted. 1) All but three of the groups we sighted had no geometric form; those three were smooth arcs,
not V-shaped. 2) Those three could not be conclusively determined to be composed of individual lights, but
certainly they were not made up of two distinct rows of alternately spaced lights. 3) None of our sightings was
either bright enough, nor in view long enough (3 seconds) to offer any possibility of being photographed. 4) Even
if the lights we saw had been particularly rich in nonvisible ultraviolet light, they could not have been photographed
without special equipment. 5) All of our sightings were close to the same speed of 30 degrees per second, at
which speed it would be impossible to follow them with a camera accurately enough to obtain an unblurred image.
W. I. Robinson A. G. Oberg W. L. Ducker E. F. George Lubbock, Texas
* Air Force experts had considered these objections of Professor Ducker and Doctors Oberg, Robinson and George. But
they are still convinced that Hart was able to get exposures of the two groups he saw (4 seconds for each to cross the
sky, 1-1/2 minutes apart) and found no reason to repudiate his pictures. -- ED.
Sirs: Your article overstates the strangeness of the fireballs it describes... You imply that the 1951
fireball display in the Southwest was not a meteor shower. We obtained and photographed approximate paths for 11
fireballs reported as falling Oct. 30 to Nov. 9 inclusive. The plot showed that all came from a small area in and near
the constellation Taurus. This indicates a shower, perhaps related to the well-known shower whose members are seen
falling away from Taurus in October and November....
C. C. Wylie Professor of Astronomy University of Iowa Iowa City, Iowa
* Although there were meteor falls during this period, Dr. La Paz says: "Almost all of the green fireballs observed
in the Southwest between December 1948 and December 1951 radiated from the circumpolar region of the sky. They came
from points 35 to as much as 105 degrees distant from the Taurid fireball radiant, and therefore obviously were not
related to this radiant." -- ED.
Sirs: It is rather chilling to see that our plans for hospitality include interceptions and recovery. It would
be tragic indeed if the harmless and friendly behavior of these crafts from elsewhere were met with military
destruction. Not only would the morals of such a course be a regrettable indication of man's immaturity, but the
practical consequences might include drastic reprisals....
Mason Rose Los Angeles, Calif.
Sirs: ...The only reason the preponderance of this saucer-fireball-cigar activity is taking place in the
American Southwest is that this is the area which has brought itself to interplanetary (or perhaps I should say,
intergalaxial) attention. It was done so by virtue of the fact that it was the site used for the original A-bomb
Bill Ryan San Diego, Calif.
* The Air Force, which has attempted to correlate the frequency and location of saucer reports with the testing of
atomic weapons, has found no significant relationships. -- ED.
Commentaires sur l'article de Life par le capitaine Edward J. Ruppelt, ancien directeur du projet de l'Air Force
Blue Book, dans son livre "Le rapport sur les objets volants non identifiés," 1956, pp. 177-178.
The LIFE article undoubtedly threw a harder punch at the American public than any other UFO article ever written.
The title alone, "Have We Visitors From Outer Space?" was enough. Other very reputable magazines, such as TRUE, had
said it before, but coming from LIFE, it was different. LIFE didn't say that the UFO's were from outer space; it just
said maybe. But to back up this "maybe," it had quotes from some famous people. Dr. Walther Riedel, who played an
important part in the development of the German V-2 missile and is presently the director of rocket engine research
for North American Aviation Corporation, said he believed that the UFO's were from outer space. Dr. Maurice Biot, one
of the world's leading aerodynamicists, backed him up.
But the most important thing about the LIFE article was he question in the minds of so many readers: "Why was it
written?" LIFE doesn't go blasting off on flights of space fancy without a good reason. Some of the readers saw a clue
in the author's comments that the hierarchy of the Air Force was now taking a serious look at UFO reports. "Did the
Air Force prompt LIFE to write the article?" was the question that many people asked themselves.
When I arrived at Dayton [Wright-Patterson AFB, home of ATIC and Project Blue Book], newspapermen were beating down
the door. The official answer to the LIFE article was released through the Office of Public Information in the
Pentagon: "The article is factual, but LIFE's conclusions are their own." In answer to any questions about the
article's being Air Force-inspired, my weasel-worded answer was that we had furnished LIFE with some raw data on
My answer was purposely weasel-worded because I knew that the Air Force had unofficially inspired the LIFE article.
The "maybe they're interplanetary" with the "maybe" bordering on "they are" was the personal opinion of several very
high-ranking officers in the Pentagon -- so high that their personal opinion was almost policy. I knew the men and I
knew that one of them, a general, had passed his opinions on to Bob Ginna.
Oddly enough, the LIFE article did not cause a flood of reports. The day after the article appeared we got nine
sightings, which was unusual, but the next day they dropped off again.
The number of reports did take a sharp rise a few days later, however. The cause was the distribution of an order
that completed the transformation of the UFO from a bastard son to the family heir. The piece of paper that made
Project Blue Book legitimate was Air Force Letter 200-5, Subject: Unidentified Flying Objects. The letter, which was
duly signed and sealed by the Secretary of the Air Force, in essence stated that UFO's were not a joke, that the Air
Force was making a serious study of the problem, and that Project Blue Book was responsible for the study. The letter
stated that the commander of every Air Force installation was responsible for forwarding all UFO reports to ATIC by
wire, with a copy to the Pentagon. Then a more detailed report would be sent by airmail. Most important of all, it
gave Project Blue Book the authority to directly contact any Air Force unit in the United States without going through
any chain of command. This was almost unheard of in the Air Force and gave our project a lot of prestige.