Rapport préliminaire du Projet Magnet

Swith, W. B. (Senior Radio Engineer, Broadcast and Measurements Section): Ottawa (Canada), 25 June, 1952 Saint Germain, Marc: octobre 2012

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Le projet Magnet fut établi le 21 novembre 1950, sur autorité du commandant C. P. Edwards, alors Secrétaire d'Etat délégué aux Services de l'Air au Ministère des Transport. Avant cette date some research in magnetic phenomena had been carried out in the Department of Transport in connection with radio wave propagation studies and an indication obtained that the subject comprised a promising field of investigation.

The large number of sightings of unidentified objects, generally called "Flying Saucers", and the intimation that they operate on some kind of magnetic principles, raised the question as to whether or not our investigations in the field of magnetics could be extended to a study of the saucers in the hope that we might uncover the technology which made them possible. Permission was sought and obtained to carry out further researches within the framework of the existing Standards Laboratory establishment, and a small working group set up on a part time basis to study the saucer problem and gain a perspective on the matter.

One of the terms of reference of the project was to study the various saucer sighting reports to determine if there was any consistent behaviour from which their operating principles might be deduced. Since their operation was suspected to be in some way magnetic, studies were directed in the theoretical field, with particular reference to those aspects which may have received only casual investigation while our present technology was developing.

The limited amount of information available regarding the flying saucers has proven a serious handicap in evaluating the characteristics and salient features of this possible other technology. Furthermore, the complete absence of specimens has made a direct approach impossible. The course of data for three studies was almost entirely information published in the Press. Such other information as was obtained was useful primarily in establishing the reality of the saucers.

From the available date, the following composite description of a typical saucer was built up.

Considérations théoriques

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Forme générale : Disque rond et fin avec protubérance hémisphérique d'un côté.
Dimensions : Diamètre de 100 à 200 pieds ; épaisseur au centre de 10 pieds environ ; épaisseur de l'anneau de probablement 2 pieds.
Matériel : Glassy, metallic, with extremely high coefficient of reflection for visible light (or on occasion, self luminous).
Operating position: Any, and without regard to the relation between the plane of the disc and the direction of motion.
Vitesse : Capable de vitesses extrêmement élevées, bien au-delà du supersonique, probablement jusqu'à 16 000 miles/h.
Power: Unknown, but certainly not chemical jets, or atomic with fission products ejected.
Magnetic: Magnetic disturbances sufficient to influence compass needle at about 10 miles distance.
Bruit : Completely absent, except for possible slight swish.
Electrical: Sometimes appear to be surrounded by corona.

The foregoing description seems to fit the majority of actual saucer sightings, although is is quite possible that several types of saucers may exist. The variety in the descriptions is probably due to the angle of observation, and the relative position of the saucer. One point which seems to be significant is that the saucers did not always move in the same direction relative to the plane of the disc.

As a starting point and as a working hypothesis it was assumed that the driving and sustaining force was the simple interaction between an electric current and the earth's magnetic field. But any electric currents with which we are familiar must complete some sort of a circuit, and the force on the complete circuit in a magnetic field is a turning moment, not a unidirectional force. The unidirectional force on the circuit could only appear if the magnetic field were either increasing of decreasing towards some point not in the plane of the circuit. This implies the existence of a magnetic "source" or "sink", which is basically contrary to our concepts of magnetism. However, if the existence of such a phenomenon could be conceded, the design of the saucers is entirely consistent, and their behaviour even more so.

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With this concept in mind a study was undertaken of the fundamental behaviour of magnetic fields to see if some discrepancy could be found which would permit the existence of a magnetic sink within the framework of classical electricity and magnetism.

We as human beings, have no sense by which we can detect or observe a magnetic field. We know of the existence of such fields only through the effects which they produce and which we can observe, either directly or indirectly. We therefore know little or nothing about the actual structure of such fields. The first point questioned was the validity of assuming that when we have measured the resultant effect of a number of fields, we have in fact measured the effect of a resultant field. And further, that a number of fields producing a resultant effect which can measure may not in actual fact combine to form a resultant field, but continue their independent existence.

The independent existence of magnetic fields was confirmed by the following experiment. Two coils, A and B were made up from small diameter concentric line, and arranged so that equal currents could be sent through them and through large series inductances. Coil B was shunted by a ballistic galvanometer in series with a condenser. A resultant magnetic field was measured by an ordinary flux meter, when either coil was carrying current, but when the two coils were carrying equal currents the flux meter indicated zero field. The energy, ½ LI2, in inductance B was measured with and without current flowing in A, and found to be identical. From this it was concluded that, (a) magnetic fields existed indenpendently, or (b) the energy does not reside in the magnetic field, or both.

It was therefore concluded that the concept of the vectorial addition of incremental magnetic fields to form a resultant, does not truly represent the actual structure of such fields, but is a concept of convenience which fortunately makes little or no difference in most practical cases.

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The question of the mechanism by which magnetic fields become established in magnetic materials was studied by winding two small coils on opposite sides of a powdered iron toroid, and exciting one of them with high frequency current. The phase angle was carefully measured between the exciting current and the emf induced in the other coil and the corresponding time lag determined. This time corresponded with the time required for the magnetic field to flash across the window of the toroid, rather than to go the long way round through the magnetic material. Thus it was concluded that magnetic fields propagate by lateral motion, and Maxwell's equations could be expected to hold for these cases.

Maxwell's equations were investigated to see of they could be extended in some manner which could make permissible a magnetic sink, and still conform with the foregoing concepts. This investigation was not entirely successful, but the various possibilities are far from being exhausted and the work is still proceeding.

There are a number of implications to the blanket application of the foregoing principles, which must be sorted out. For instance, the Maxwellian propagation of magnetic fields requires a rather special mechanism for the magnetization of a magnetic material, involving three waves, and two kinds of permeability. Consider a conductor placed near a body of magnetic material, and that one of the electrons in the conductor be started in motion causing a minute current to flow. The acceleration of the electron would send outward a Hertian wave which would ride out along the radial electric field to an indefinite distance. The velocity of propagation of this wave would be c / (u1 k1) where c is the velocity of light in vacuo, u1 the instantaneous permeability of the region through which the wave passes, and k1 the instantaneous dielectric constant of the same region. However, as the wave passes through the magnetic material, the magnetic vector will encounter and exert forces upon many individual fields already existing within the material, and the electric vector will also encounter and exert forces upon many individual electric charges. However, these small fields and charges will require a finite time to move under the influence of the exciting field. When they do move, however, each will send outward its own Hertzian wave which in turn will operate on all the other fields, and so on. The net result of all this will be the generation of two more waves within the magnetic material which will propagate through it in opposite directions, one in the same direction as the exciting wave and the other in the reverse direction. There will be a substantial time lag between the passing of the exciting wave and the passing of the secondary waves, which could be interpreted as resulting from a different velocity of propagating within the material, o /  u2 k2  . This interpretation would be valid only so long as it is remembered that u2 and k2 are functions of time. But if it is considered that the secondary wave is actually made up of many separate individual waves, then u2 and k2 would became constants for each wave.

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An answer which is required but not yet found deals with the energy exchange between a charged particle and the surrounding field, when the particle is undergoing acceleration, either positive or negative. It appears that the space surrounding matter is filled with myriads of electric and magnetic fields, the former describing the position of the material particle and the latter describing its state of motion. The relative behaviour of these fields would therefore be representative of the relative potential and kinetic energy respectively. Consequently, when a particle changes its relative position or motion, such change must be reflected in its fields. The question which arises at this point is the actual whereabouts of the energy involved; is it in the particle itself, its fields or some intermediate state? Also, since the position and motion of a particle are relative, are the energies also relative, and if so, how is this relativity reflected in its fields? Again, since we observe that Hertzian waves do contain energy, but have peculiar characteristics in other respects, and that magnetic fields get into place through this mechanism, we have another large question, are the electric fields and magnetic fields associated with the position and action of a particle IDENTICAL with the electric and magnetic fields making up a Hertzian wave?

Diverses lines of reasoning may be followed with respect to the foregoing, each leading to interesting conclusions. It is necessary of course to devise experiments to obtain as direct answers as possible to the queries posed above and others that follow as a logical consequence, before any definite conclusions can be reached. However it does appear that in the evolution of our technology we did not give sufficient attention to the actual structure of fields, and therefore missed a good many interesting and probably very useful facts. We can backtrack, however, in the light of our knowledge and pick up these facts. Si, comme il semble évident, les Soucoupes Volantes sont les émissaires d'une autre civilisation, et fonctionnent bien sur des principes magnétiques, nous avons devant nous le fait que nous avons manqué quelque chose dans la théorie du magnétisme mais avons une bonne indication de la direction où chercher les aspects manquants. Il est donc fortement recommandé que le travail du Projet Magnet se poursuive et soit étendu pour y inclure des experts de chacun des divers domaines impliqués dans ces études.