Couverture des actes du symposium du MUFON cette année-là
Couverture des actes du symposium du MUFON cette année-là

Une étude de Californie du Sud de 57 cas liés aux ovnis ajoute du crédit à la théorie de l'orthoténie, avancée en premier par Aimé Michel dans son étude de 55 autres événements, comprenant 3 groupes de comparaison non liés à la théorie d'origine de l'orthoténie, furent également tracés. 4 ancient sites de rituels indiens furent inclus pour voir si les lignes orthoténiques semblent avoir un lien quelconque possible avec les phénomànes de ley line. Les autres groupes de comparaison, i.e., 14 ovnis et 17 événements bien enquêtés d'intérêt pour des chercheurs en parapsychologie, ont été ajoutés à l'étude afin de démontrer leur nature aléatoire, lorsqu'ils sont comparés aux groupements orthoténiques (de lignes droites) d'événements ovnis.

Le thême de notre symposium du MUFON de 1983, "Ovnis, un défi scientifique", incorpore dans cette simple phrase la difficulté avec laquelle chaque article a été préparé. Les ovnis ne se prêtent pas d'eux-mêmes facilement à l'étude scientifique. Ils apparaissent quand et où ils le veulent, choisissent leur propre durée et n'ont pas été publiquement suivis par des observateurs humains pendant une quelconque durée significative. Plus frustrant que tout, leurs apparitions sporadiques ne peuvent être prédites, encore moins reproduites. Et la capacité à reproduire des observations réside au coeur de la science.

Ici j'offre les résultats d'une étude de signalements d'ovnis en Californie du Sud which researchers anywhere in the world can replicate with some time and effort. It may present a truly scientific way of studying UFO reports and, perhaps, even of predicting areas of future sightings.

The study includes fifty-seven (57) locations within an 18,000-square mile area of Southern California where UFO events were reported by citizens of average or above-average observing ability. These locations include twenty-seven (27) sites where CE I and CE II events allegedly occurred, eight (8) sites of UFO landing reports and/or abduction scenarios, and thirteen (13) incidents of reported contact with "alien" entities during which no UFO-class vehicles were visible to the witnesses. Nine (9) additional cases of ufological content and high strangeness which, for one reason or another, did not fit into the other classifications comprised the fourth UFO group

The purpose of Hs study was to determine whether or not UFO sightings and entity reports in Southern California lay along orthotenic lines. My initial interest in this subject stemmed from two factors. First, for the past twenty-nine years in France, the United States, South America, the United Kingdom and other countries had found the straight-line phenomenon held true in their own areas. Second, I had accidentally discovered an orthotenic line, composed of six (6) points, during a study of local UFO sightings. This particular project involved plotting twenty-five (25) sighting locations on an aeromagnetic map of Los Angeles and Orange counties Druffel, A. & Zimmerman, Richard: "'Combined' and 'Magnetic'", PROBE Magazine, (Collector's Edition), Fall 1979, pp. 26-37, 82-83. At that time, I was not looking for straight-line phenomena, but rather correlations between UFO sightings and magnetic anomalies in earth terrain.

This accidentally-discovered straight-line stretched from Yorba Linda in the southeast section of Orange County into the city of Montrose n the northeast portion of the Los Angeles Basin. For the next several years I tried to find the time to continue the study in order to see whether other straight lines would appear from the plotting of the sites of other UFO CE II's and CE III's and landing reports or if additional reports would be found to lie along the Yorba Linda-Montrose line. A full study was time-consuming, and the opportunity to do it was not found until now.

To be specific, the terms "straight lines" or "orthotenic lines," as used in ufology, do not refer to physical markings in or on the earth, such as are found, for example, on the Plain of Nasca in Peru. A "straight (orthotenic) line" as used in this paper, is an imaginary line running through four or more specific sites on the earth's surface. The sites themselves are physical locations and, for the purpose of this research, were plotted on a map with various colored flags. The "lines" were indicated by stretching thin black yarn between the points on the map indicated by the flags, after careful alignment with a rigid, wooden yardstick determined that a straight line could be drawn connecting them. The width of the yam was equal to the distance of 1/5 mile on the map's scale.

It is hoped that other researchers in other parts of the United States and other countries will be encouraged to pursue the same simple, though time-consuming, steps described here, and that their findings can either replicate or disprove my results and tentative conclusions.

Historical Background of Orthoteny

The "straight-line mystery," as related to ufology, was first discovered by the French scientist, Aime Michel, a world-renowned researcher and a truly professional and scientific ufologist. Before 1954, like most students of UFOs, Michel was discouraged by the sporadic and unpredictable nature of UFO sightings. There was no data presented by the unidentified objects which could be scientifically studied and no material which could be replicated by researchers in various parts of the world.

In his book, FLYING SAUCERS AND THE STRAIGHT LINE MYSTERY, published in , Michel explains that from mid- to mid-, the situation changed dramatically FLYING SAUCERS AND THE STRAIGHT-LINE MYSTERY, by Aime Michel, Criterion Book, New York 1958.. During those months, a series of sightings occurred in France and adjacent countries which he was able to plot on maps of the areas involved. The flap, as far as intensity and high-strangeness value of the sightings were unprecedented.

Michel found that sightings occurring as far apart as 700 miles were located along great-circle routes which, transferred onto flat maps of the areas involved, amounted to straight lines. He began his study by plotting five high-strangeness reports, all of which occurred on Friday, October 15, 1954. The sightings were in such widely separated points as South end in England, Calais and Aire-sur-la-Lys in France, a site on Route N-68 close to the German border, and Po di Gnocca in Italy. Michel marked these five sightings on a globe of the earth and found that if a thread was stretched between the five points, that the thread extended in a great-circle line 700 miles long. When the same sightings were plotted on appropriate maps of the areas involved, adjusted to account for the slight curve of the earth over the 700 miles, the five points lay on a "straight line."

Thus Aime Michel's technique of orthoteny was born. The word orthoteny is derived from the Greek adjective "orthoteneis" which means "stretched in a straight line."

Of course, a straight line can be drawn between any two points, but Michel, being a mathematician, was aware that a five point straight line between UFO sighting locations on the same date was far beyond coincidence. Through successive plottings of multi-sightings on other days during the French 1954 flap, Michel found many other multi-point straight lines, representing locations of sightings in France and adjacent countries.

From these results, he developed a hypothesis that the UFOs might be using a grid work surveillance pattern during their appearances and were traveling or manifesting along straight lines because this was the most logical manner of surveillance.

Michel also found strong evidence of an additional phenomenon— at the intersection of these straight, the object sighted was invariably the class of UFO known as "cloud cigars." These huge cloud-shrouded oval forms, from which smaller glowing or metallic disks departed and to which (and into which) they returned, were always viewed, in their motionless mode, where two or more straight lines intersected at a sighting location. The most striking example of this phenomenon occurred on September 2, 1954 when nine multi-point straight lines of French UFO sightings intersected at Poncey, France Op. cit., pp. 106-11. Michel theorized that the "cloud cigars" were aggregations of UFOs, in other words, a type of carrier-craft mechanism which provided a rallying point for small disks which performed the surveillance maneuvers along the grid work lines. As the years passed after Michel's initial study, the theory of orthoteny was argued pro and con in UFO literature Gordon Creighton, present editor of FLYING SAUCER REVIEW (FSR) has kindly provided the following bibliography of FSR articles, pro and con, on orthoteny from 1962 through 1965: In Vol. 8, No. 2 (1962) "Orthoteny and North African Cases" by Dr. Jacques Vallee; in Vol. 8, No. 6 (1962 ) "Orthoteny"; in Vol. 9, No. 3, (1963 ) "Global Orthoteny" by Aime Michel; in Vol. 9, No. 4 1963) "The Vauriat Sighting"; in Vol. 9, No. 5 (1963) "BAVIC in the Iberian Peninsula" by Antonio Ribera; in Vol. 9, No. 6 (1963) "Recent Developments in Orthotenic Research" by Dr. Jacques Vallee; in Vol. 9, No. 6 (1963) "BAVIC Plotted as a World Circle Line" by Haythornthwaite; in Vol. 10, No. 2 (1964) Editorial: "The Crooked Line Theory" by Gordon Creighton; in Vol. 10, No. 2 (1964) "Do Flying Saucers Move on Straight Lines?" by Dr. Donald Menzel; in Vol. 10, No. 2 (1964) "Where Dr. Menzel Has Gone Wrong" by Aime Michel; in Vol. 10, No. 2 (1964) "New Light on Ancient Tracks" by J. Goddard; in Vol. 10, No. 4 (1964 ) "Global Orthoteny: New Pitfalls," by Menzel; in Vol. 10, No. 4 (1964) "The Menzel-Michel Controversy" by Dr. Jacques Vallee; in Vol. 11, No. 2 (1965) "Foundations of Orthoteny" by Peter Seeviour; in Vol. 11, No. 3 (1965) "Orthoteny, A Lost Cause" by D. Menzel; in Vol. 11, No. 3 (1965) "Reflections of An Honest Liar," by Aime Michel..

Coral and Jim Lorenzen of the Aerial Phenomena Research Organization (APRO) in Arizona found orthotenic lines in the United States and South America Personal communication, April 11, 1983. Specific reference unavailable at present.. Other researchers, notably Drs. David R. Saunders and Jacques Vallee added strength to the theory by plotting great-circle lines over portions of the United States and other countries, and publishing the results of their analyses in various articles and books For example, FSR, "Is BAVIC Remarkable?" by Dr. David R. Saunders, Vol. 17, No. 4, July-August 1971. For example, CHALLENGE TO SCIENCE, by Jacques and Janine Vallee, Ace Books, Inc., New York..

Throughout these subsequent years of study, however, researchers (including Michel himself, had noticed that orthoteny did not hold true only for sightings involving one particular date See "An Enigmatic Figure of the XVIIth Century," by Aime Michel, FSR Vol. 18, No. 2, March-April 1972. "Is BAVIC Remarkable" (See Reference 6.). Orthotenic lines of UFO activity were found on which numerous sightings had occurred over a time span of many years The most famous of these is BAVIC, originally a six-point line extending from Bayonne to Vichy, France. Although the six original sightings all occurred on September 24, 1954, subsequent study has revealed other cases of high strangeness occurring on other dates along the BAVIC line. In addition, it has been found that other remarkable phenomena sites, such as the location of Magdalenian cave art containing paintings of definite UFO shapes, lie along the BAVIC line "Paleolithic UFO-Shapes" by Aime Michel, FSR, Vol. 15, No. 6, November-December 1969. BAVIC, of course, has been extended, by research, far beyond its original Bayonne-Vichy limits and now constitutes a great circle line.

Therefore, Michel's first hypothesis that the straight-line mystery represented logical behavior of UFOs to manifest themselves along a grid work surveillance pattern on individual dates in time was refined in favor of a more substantial hypothesis. Some researchers now speculate that the terrain along the lines might, n some unknown way, allow UFOs to manifest to human witnesses or that the terrain in some way attracts UFOs or is somehow involved with their propulsive units.

Gradually, the theory of orthotenic lines has become less a matter of controversial discussion. Conversely, over the last ten years, the study of so-called "ley lines" has become popular. Ley line study indicates that the location of ancient sites of ceremonial and religious ritual, such as Stonehenge, lie along straight lines as well. This theory was first advanced by Alfred Watkins n the 1920s THE OLD STRAIGHT TRACK, Alfred Watkins (out-of-print, rare. Publishing info not available.), but much of the credit for upgrading ley-line data is due to Paul Devereux, editor of the magazine THE LEY HUNTER A recent book by Devereux and lan Thomson postulates a UFO-ancient sites (leys) link THE LEY HUNTER'S COMPANION, by Paul Devereux and Lan Thomson, published by Thames and Hudson, 1979.. Evidence of this is not yet strong. There is no demonstrated proof that ley lines and orthotenic lines are in any way associated with each other, but the fact remains that UFOs, especially in the United Kingdom and some European countries, are seen over, or in the general area of leys FSR, "Book Review: UFOs Over Leys?," by Janet Bord, Vol. 25, No. 4, July-August 1979..

The study of ley lines, however, is now well past the theory point. Evidence that ancient or prehistoric cultures built their important places of ceremonial worship along straight lines (or, in the case of the longer lines spanning more than one country such as those discovered by Michel, along great-circle routes), is frilly established.

One hypotheses which tries to explain ley lines states that these sites were chosen by ancient peoples because of some inherent telluric property of the terrain along which these ceremonial sites were built. The specific earth energy (or property) believed to be involved in ley lines and ley sites is not yet identified.

Ley lines have been demonstrated to exist on most continents. Numerous ancient cultures seem to have employed this principle. Even today, many of our more modern major sites of ritual (churches, mosques, synagogues, and other centers of metaphysical study) are built on ruins of ancient religious buildings and, therefore, still lie on ley lines.

During the past four years, through various coincidences, I became aware of four Southern California sites of ancient ceremonial interest, used long ago by members of various American Indian tribes. When I began my orthotenic study of Southern California UFO reports, these four Indian sites were included and plotted on the same map to see if their locations had any correlations with UFO reports These four sites became a comparison group in the study, along with two other comparison groups (see below), making a total of throaty-Fe (35) comparison cases to be plotted along with the fifty-seven (57) selected high-strangeness UFO reports.

Protocol of Southern California Orthonetic (Straight-Line) Study

The UFO reports selected for plotting met the following criteria:

  1. The reported landings and/or time lapse/abduction scenario reports were considered acceptable for the study if, following field investigation, each case still retained its high-strangeness value. Also, there could be no doubt of the exact spot where the object had allegedly come into contact with the earth or where the witness(es) experienced time-lapse and/or abduction scenarios. Two examples of cases in this category are the Burbank, California landing report, which was published in FLYING SAUCER REVIEW Druffel, A.: "The Burbank Landing and Occupant Report", FSR, vol. 21, n° 1, pp. 3-7, 8. and the LorI BrIggs-Jo Maine abduction scenario, which was explored at length In my book, co-authored by parapsychologist D. Scott Rogo, THE TUJUNGA CANYON CONTACTS Druffel, A. & & Rogo, D. Scott: The Tujunga Canyon Contacts, Prentice-Hall, NJ, 1980, pp. 153-91..
  2. The second class of UFO reports, i.e., close approaches or CE IIs and CE IIIs, was selected because the reported UFO could be plotted, in relationship to earth terrain, within approximately 500 feet of the witness Definite reference points were demanded in each case in order to establish this distance limit accurately.
  3. The third UFO group of reported UFO entities included only those in which no UFO-type vehicle was reported. These cases included so-called "bedroom visitations" of visible entities, alleged psychic communication with UFO entities through automatic writing or telepathic communications, and cases where witnesses reported other strong perceptions of contact with alien entities. Some evidence that the incident had actually occurred was demanded, such as establishing the stability and honesty of the witness(es), automatic writing of high-strangeness content or other accompanying high-strangeness phenomena. An example of this group was the reported experience of Jan Whitley in a Tujunga Canyon stone cabin, described in THE TUJUNGA CANYON CONTACTS Op. cit., pp. 103-4..
  4. The fourth UFO group n the study was a special group which I term DIPs (an acronym for "disposition impossible at present.") These were cases of definite ufological content which, for one reason or another, have not lent themselves to adequate investigation . The high-strangeness quality of these cases, however, made them attractive, and they were included mainly out of curiosity as to whether or not they would form into the same patterns as well-investigated cases. As stated above, three comparison groups were selected for plotting on the same map as the UFO-related groups The first of these comparison groups were the four (4) Southern California Indian sites. The second was a group of fourteen (14) IFO cases These were all objects, in close proximity to the reporting witnesses, which were first perceived as UFOs but later proven to be misidentified conventional objects The third group was composed of seventeen (17) reports of paranormal manifestations, such as poltergeist activity, purported haunting, spontaneous fires, rock falls [from the sky] and other unexplained occurrences These cases were obtained from s psychic researchers and other trusted colleagues and were considered to be authentic or probably authentic. Only three of these cases occurred at locations where UFO activity had also occurred, and all were entirely devoid of ufological content. Like the IFOs, there was full expectation that their plotting would show a random pattern.

Map Used In Study

The primary map, on which the total of ninety-two (92) sites (including fifty-seven (57) UFO cases and thirty-five (35) comparison cases) were plotted, was a composite of six maps produced by the US Geological Survey of Denver, Colorado and Reston, Virginia, and the National Ocean Survey, Rockville, Maryland Most of the maps were made in 1957 and revised in 1978, the sole exception being made in 1958 and revised n 1969 . All had the same scale, 1:250,000. A mile was represented by one-quarter of an inch The maps were topographic and, in the case of those including off-shore waters, bathymetric as well.

Six maps were necessary to the study in order to obtain the desired scale and territory of the Southern California area. The maps were, specifically:

  1. #NI 11-7, encompassing Catalina Island, Santa Barbara Island, San Nicholas Island and part of San Clemente Island, and the surrounding waters of the Pacific Ocean. Land area encompassed from Huntington Beach to Culver City.
  2. #NI 11-4, which incorporated the Los Angeles area and also included south to Montebello and north 50 miles beyond Santa Barbara.
  3. #NI 11-5, which included San Bernardino and the Mohave Desert to the north and northeast.
  4. #NI 11-8, including land area from Huntington Beach through Solano Beach and offshore waters.
  5. #NI 11-10, showing waters surrounding San Clemente Island and those portions of San Clemente Island not included in #NI 11-7.
  6. #NI 11-11, depicting land area from Huntington Beach to the Mexican border and east to Palm Springs.

The margins of each map were cut off, and the six maps were fitted together and secured with non-shiny Scotch tape It is a credit to the accuracy of the U.S. Geological Survey that the six portions interlocked perfectly, as far as freeways, major highways, waterways, reservoirs, topographic and bathymetric contours and other features necessary for site identification were concerned.

The finished map measured four and one-half (4 1/2) feet by five (5) feet and was mounted permanently on a cork wall. Flags of seven different colors were used for plotting the seven groups, as follows: red for landings and time lapse/ abduction scenarios, orange for close encounters, light blue for "entity" contacts, brown for the special class termed DIPs, pink for paranormal events, green for IFOs and navy blue for ancient Indian ceremonial sites.

Selection of UFO Cases

In order to glean suitable reports for plotting In each of the categories, I combed my files, comprised of over 1000 Southern California reports from to the present; principally the SKYNET files beginning In 1965. All suitable reports which fit the criteria for each group and for which the exact address or location was readily available, were plotted. There were, of course, many dozens of other cases which fit the criteria In several of the groups but, in these, information on exact locations was not instantly available. These were left for a future study.

The SKYNET files are the result of a Los Angeles-based filter center and tracking system established in 1965. I have been the Project Co-ordinator for this system since its inception, and the great majority of reports received through SKYNET channels have come through my home. In all, since to the present, 708 reports have been logged on my own SKYNET report charts, and uncounted others have come through other SKYNET locations around the Los Angeles Basin and are in other researchers' files.

Of the 708 SKYNET cases, twenty-one (21) CE IIs and CE IIIs were used. The remaining six (6) were kindly provided by Vince Uhlenkott, Idabel Epperson, Vance Dewey, and John de Herrera. In the "landing/abduction" category, seven (7) were SKYNET cases and one (1) was provided by Vance Dewey. In the "entity" category, eleven (11) cases were SKYNET with others provided by John de Herrera and Anita Furdek. In the DIPs group, all were SKYNET cases.

In the IFO category, thirteen (13) were SKYNET cases and one (l) was provided by John de Herrera. In the paranormal events category, nine (9) were provided by parapsychologist Raymond Bayless, four (4) came to light during investigation of SKYNET cases, three (3) were personally known to me, and one (l) was provided by Anita Furdek. Initial information on three of the four Indian sites came to my attention through Jamie Sams and Timothy Lee King.

Plotting Techniques

The plotting of all seven groups was done entirely at random, that is, no attempt was made to select cases which seemed as though they might fit into the already identified Yorba Linda-Montrose line or other lines as they emerged on the map The exact site (as described by the witnesses) which was associated with each report was located first in the Thomas Brothers Street Atlas of Los Angeles and Orange Counties, 1977 edition. On these maps the scale is one and seven-eighths inch (l 7/8") to a mile. Other sites not within these county boundaries were located in the Murray map of San Diego, where the scale is one and one-half (l 1/2) inch to one mile and on an Oeding Enterprises map of Palm Springs, which had a scale of approximately one and one-half (l 1/2) inch to one mile All streets were marked on these smaller scale map sources so that precise location of each site was easily apparent. [An allowance of error of approximately 500 feet was allowed.]

The site locations, as determined by the smaller scale maps, were then transposed to the larger scale U.S. Geological map. Since this map's scale was the equivalent of one-fourth (1/4) inch to one mile, the plotting was a painstaking operation, due to the small areas involved.

The ninety-two (92) locations were plotted with as much precision as possible by their relationships to freeways, railroad tracks, major highways, rivers, other water- ways and reservoirs, airfields, etc., all of which were clearly marked on the U.S. Geological Survey map. I would estimate that the final plotting of each individual flag was done with an accuracy between 1/32) to 1/16 inch. Since the Geological Survey map's scale was 1/4 mile inch to a mile, we are left with a possible error of 1/8 to 1/4 mile for each plotted flag.

The four American Indian ritual sites were: Tahquitz Rock near Idyllwild; Eagle Rock in the city of Eagle Rock (Los Angeles 90041), Stony Point in Chatsworth, and Castle Rock in Park. Of these, Tahquitz Rock and Stony Point are protected by governmental authorities and are still generally in their primeval state. Eagle Rock and Castle Rock, being on or adjacent to private lands, are being encroached upon by human habitation, but still manage to maintain their historical interest and beauty.

When these four sites were plotted with navy blue flags, it became apparent that three of them, i.e., Tahquitz Rock, Eagle Rock and Stony Point, lay in a straight line across terrain one hundred and sixteen (116) air miles long. Castle Rock lay five and one-half (5 1/2) miles southwest of Stony Point. Although, for purposes of this study, three-point UFO related lines were ignored as coincidental, it was felt that it might be more than coincidental that three out of the four Indian sites in this study could be connected by a straight line of this length. This finding was accepted as preliminary evidence that these three Indian sites might form the equivalent of a "ley line" as found in other countries.

Result of Study and Ufological Significance

After all of the fifty-seven (57) UFO-related sites had been plotted, a rigid wooden yardstick was used to determine which cases lay along straight-line routes. The criterion for ufological significance was four (4) or more sites of UFO significance lying in a straight line across the map. In all, sixteen (16) straight lines comprised of four (4) or more points were discovered. Of these sixteen lines, two (2) had seven (7) points, four (4) had six (6) points, three (3) had five (5) points and seven (7) had four (4) points. The sixteen (16) lines extended over varying distances, ranging from one hundred and twenty-eight (128) miles to twenty-four (24) miles.

In charting these lines, a deviation of five-eighths (5/8) of a mile was deemed acceptable, since in orthotenic studies deviations up to a kilometer on one side of a line was deemed a "good fit." If it is assumed that orthotenic or ley lines represent some type of earth energy, then logically there would be some width to the energy field involved. Therefore, an arbitrary figure of approximately 3,500 feet was judged reasonable for purposes of this study. Deviations of this distance, however, were rare, comprising no more than five to ten percent (5-10%) of the total plottings.

Of the sixteen (16) ufologically significant lines, three (3) had Indian sites lying upon them. The most striking line of Indian sites, i.e., Tahquitz Rock, Eagle Rock, and Stony Point, had three sites of ufological interest lying at various locations on it. [Even though groups of three UFO events in a line were otherwise ignored as insignificant, this line was kept as possibly meaningful.]

Results of Plotting of Comparison Groups

The addition of the remaining two comparison groups (IFOs and paranormal events), when plotted on the map, yielded interesting results. Except for those four instances where paranormal events had occurred at the same locations as UFO incidents, the pink flags had been expected to show non-correlation with the straight lines of ufological significance. However, of the total number of seventeen (17) paranormal events plotted, nine (9) lay on lines of ufological significance. Seven (7) others lay on lines of "combined interest" (see text below.) The one exception lay within a mile of an existing line.

The most surprising result of the study was the discovery that ten (10) of the IFO group (plotted with green flags) lay along lines of ufological significance. The remaining four (4) lay along lines of so-called combined interest.

One particular IFO sighting, a gross misidentification of Venus as a "flaming orb which repeatedly zoomed toward a witness' roof" was located where three lines intersected. Two of these lines were of ufological significance, the other a "combined interest" line. There is no ready explanation why gross misidentifications should be located along straight lines, since the IFO group was purposely chosen at the beginning of the study as a comparison group, the plotting of which would not logically be expected to have any correlation with purportedly genuine UFO activity. It is speculated here that the terrain associated with orthotenic or ley lines does contain some as-yet-unidentified type of telluric (earth) energy which is in some unknown way associated with the manifestation and/or propulsive power of UFOs. It is also speculated that the same earth energy might have the ability to influence the physiology of human witnesses, (including their physical, mental and emotional makeup), so that in the vicinity of orthotenic lines conventional objects might be mistaken for what they actually are.

"Combined Interest" Lines

In addition to the sixteen (16) lines of ufological significance (comprised of 4 to 7 points each), seven (7) additional lines were discovered on the map. None of these contained the required 4 or more ufological locations to fit into our protocol criterion of non-coincidence but six (6) out of seven (7) of these additional lines had four (4) or more points when the UFO sites, paranormal incidents, and Indian sites were combined on each. For the purpose of simplicity through out the rest of the text, we shall term the lines of ufological significance (four or more UFO-related points) as "major lines," and the lines of combined interest as "minor lines." The minor lines might be of possible interest to those researchers who are interested in the study of paranormal events and ley lines, as associated with some UFO reports.

Statistical Analysis of the Ninety-Two Sites in Relationship to Major Lines

Summing up the statistical analysis of the ninety-two (92) plotted sites lying on straight lines discovered in this study, we will take the liberty of combining all seven groups of flags. It is apparent that a close fit of all but one flag out of 92, in spite of the fact that two entire groups of flags were not expected to fit at all, is more than coincidental. It seems possible that there is some relationship between the locations where UFOs closely approach witnesses and earth terrain where paranormal events, sites of ancient religious rituals, and gross misidentifications of conventional objects as UFOs are found. Therefore, combining all the flags plotted, we have the following count for the sixteen (16) major lines discovered during this study. Mileage is, of course, in air miles and does not take into account the contours of the terrain involved.

Major Lines

  1. A nine (9)-point line extending NW from La Puente to Chatsworth comprising seven (7 )UFO events, one (1) paranormal event and one (1) Indian site Forty (40) miles long.
  2. A nine (9)- point line extending WNW from Palm Springs to Canoga Park, comprised of five (5) UFO sites, four (4) paranormal events. One hundred and twenty-eight (128) miles long.
  3. An eight (8)-point line extending NNW from San Diego to Tujunga, comprised of four (4) UFO sites and four (4) paranormal events. One hundred and twenty-six (126) miles long.
  4. An eight (8)-point line extending NW from the Lake Elsinore area to Sylmar, comprised of seven (7) UFO events and one (1) IFO. Seventy-eight (78) miles long.
  5. An eight (8)-point line extending W from Glendora to Reseda, comprised of six (6) UFO events and two (2 )IFOs. Forty-one (41) miles long.
  6. An eight (8)-point line extending NNW from Channel waters off Laguna Beach to Chatsworth, comprised of five (5) UFO, one (1) paranormal event, one (1) Indian site, and one (1) IFO. Seventy (70) miles long.
  7. An eight (8)-point line, extending NNW from Yorba Linda to Tujunga, comprised of six (6) UFO, one (1) paranormal event, and one (1) IFO. Thirty-nine (39) miles long.
  8. A seven (7)-point line extending due N from Torrance into Big Tujunga Canyon, comprised of six (6 )UFO, and one (1 ) paranormal event. Twenty-nine (29 miles long.
  9. A seven (7)-point line extending NW from Yorba Linda to Sylmar, comprised of four (4 )UFO, one (1) paranormal event, one (1) Indian site, and one (1) IFO. Forty-eight (48) miles long.
  10. A seven (7)-point line extending NNW from Lemon Grove into Big Tujunga Canyon, comprised of five (5) UFO and two (2 ) IFOs. One hundred and twenty-eight (128) miles long
  11. A six (6)-point line extending NNW from Newport Beach to Sylmar, comprised of six (6 ) UFO events. Fifty-six (56) miles long.
  12. A five (5)-point line extending NNW from San Diego to Burbank, comprised of four (4)UFO and one (1) paranormal event. One hundred and twenty-six (126) miles long.
  13. A five (5)-point line, extending NNE from Redondo Beach to Temple City, comprised of four (4) UFO points and one (1) IFO. Twenty-eight (28) miles long
  14. A four (4)-point line extending NNW from Garden Grove to Altadena, comprising four (4 UFO) points. Thirty-two (32) miles long.
  15. A four (4)-point line extending NNW from Torrance to Van Nuys, comprising four (4) UFO points. Thirty (30) miles long
  16. A four (4)-point line extending NNE from Palos Verdes Peninsula to Alhambra, comprising four (4) UFO points. Twenty-four (24) miles long.
Figure 1 - Map of southern California, showing location of 16 ufologically significant (major) lines
Figure 1 - Map of southern California, showing location of 16 ufologically significant (major) lines

See Figure One for a map of Southern California, showing the approximate locations of each of these major lines. (Color slides will be shown at the 1983 MUFON Symposium showing their precise locations.)

Minor Lines

Straight lines of less than ufological significance, but seemingly significant to research on orthotenic/ley lines and on relationship of UFO and paranormal events are given below. Mileage is also in air miles.

  1. An eight (8)-point line extending NW from Santa Ana to Canoga Park, comprising three (3) UFO points, three (3)paranormal events, one (1) Indian site, and one (1) IFO. Fifty-six (56) miles long.
  2. A six (6)-point line, extending NW from Torrance to Reseda comprising three (3) UFO, one (1) paranormal event, and two (2) IFOs. Thirty-three (33) miles long.
  3. A six (6)-point line, extending WNW from Idyllwild to Chatsworth, comprising three (3) UFO and three (3) Indian sites. One hundred and sixteen (116) miles long.
  4. A five (5)-point line extending W from Baldwin Park to Encino, comprising two (2) UFO, two (2) paranormal events, and two (2) IFOs. Thirty-two (32) miles long.
  5. A five (5)-point line extending NNW from San Diego to Pasadena, comprising three (3) UFO, one (1) paranormal event, and one (1) IFO. One hundred and thirteen (113) miles long.
  6. A four (4)-point line, extending W from West Covina to West Los Angeles, comprising three (3) UFO and one (1) paranormal event. Twenty-four (24) miles long.
  7. A three (3)-point line extending SW from Palm Springs to Tahquitz Rock near Idyllwild, comprising two (2) UFO and one (1) Indian site. Thirteen (13) miles long. (This line is included, even though not satisfying the criterion of four or more points, because of on-going investigation of sites involved, which might yield additional results before July 1983, which can be reported at the MUFON UFO Symposium in Pasadena, California. )
Figure 2 - Map of southern California, showing location of 7 combined interest (minor) lines described in text
Figure 2 - Map of southern California, showing location of 7 combined interest (minor) lines described in text

See Figure Two for a map of Southern California, showing the approximate locations of each of these lines.

In addition to the surprising results of the plotting of the fourteen (14) IFOs and the seventeen (17) paranormal events, it was also highly interesting to see the tight fit of all nine (9) DIP reports, which were included in the above analyses under UFO events. As explained above, these were UFO reports of high strangeness which for one reason or another had not lent themselves to adequate investigation and were included mainly out of curiosity to see how they would correlate with investigated reports.

Whether their tight fit indicates that these inadequately-investigated reports were indeed valid has not been established, due to the comparatively small number (9) of DIP reports plotted. It would be interesting to see further research in this area.

Randomly-Produced Map Compared With Map Used in Study

In order to demonstrate that the twenty-three (23) major and minor straight lines found during this study were not coincidental, but rather indicated that some unknown phenomenon was at work, I followed Aime Michel's lead FLYING SAUCERS AND THE STRAIGHT-LINE MYSTERY, pp. 26-62. and produced a pseudo-orthotenic map. Ninety-two (92) popcorn seeds were scattered over a flat board. This board was thirty-eight (38) inches wide and thirty (30) inches high, the same size as the area on the Geological Survey map on which the ninety-two (92) flags comprising the seven (7) groups had been plotted. (Although the Geological Survey map was four and one-half feet by five feet (4 1/2' x 5') as mounted, there were no readily available sightings to be plotted in the western one-third (1/3) and the northern one-fourth (1/4) of this larger wall map.

In order to preserve proper statistical coincidence, I colored thirty-five (35) of the seeds to represent the three (3) comparison groups in the study, i.e. the Indian sites, the IFOs and the paranormal events. Fifty-seven (57) of the seeds were left their normal color, representing the UFO-related groups.

I scattered the seeds randomly over the flat board and then set about trying to see how many straight lines of four (4) or more points emerged. The same permissible deviation limit (5/8 inch on one side) was employed. I also found that popcorn seeds are not uniformly shaped, and finding the exact center of each was chancy. I estimated that the same accuracy limit in plotting each flag probably applied, i.e. 1/32" to 1/16"), as on the actual Geological Survey map.

Working among flags stuck at the site of each popcorn seed, the following pseudo-orthotenic lines were found:

  1. One six (6)-point line, composed of four (4) natural color seeds, one pink and one (1) green.
  2. One (1) five (5)- point line, composed of three (3) natural seeds, one (1) green and one (1) pink.
  3. Four (4) four (4)- point lines, one (1) composed of three (3) natural seeds and one (1) pink, and three (3) lines of two (2) natural and two (2) pink apiece.

See Figure Three (below) for a drawing of these six (6) pseudo-orthotenic lines. In addition, there were fifteen (15) lines of (three) 3 points each, but these were considered coincidental since three-point lines were considered coincidental in the actual study and ignored.

Figure 3 - Pseudo-orthotenic map as described in text
Figure 3 - Pseudo-orthotenic map as described in text

In addition to this, twenty (20) seeds lay outside the perimeters of any lines, three-point or more, as compared to one (l) single flag on the actual map, which had failed to fit onto a line.

If we discount the fifteen (15) lines of three (3) points each on the pseudo-orthotenic map, then sixty-five (65) seeds out of ninety-two (92) failed to lie on any "meaningful" line, as compared to the one (1) single flag denoting a paranormal event which failed to fit into a line on the study's map. The above statistics prove without doubt that the actual study, which had produced a total of twenty-three (23) meaningful lines, represented a phenomenon which lay beyond chance or coincidence.

Intersection Points as Related to Study

A comparison of intersection points on the pseudo-orthotenic map and the actual study map also yielded interesting results. On the random map, there were twelve (12) points of intersection, that is, where one line crossed another line at one of the flagged locations. Only three of these intersection points occurred at points where lines of 4 or more points crossed each other. On the actual study map, however, intersections of the sixteen (16 ) major lines of ufological significance were found at thirty (30) points.

Of these, twenty (20) were termed "double" intersections, that is, where one line intersected another line at a plotted location. Four (4) were sites of landings and/or abduction scenarios, eight (8) were sites of CE IIs and IIIs, three (3) were locations of alleged entity sightings, three (3) were sites of the special group, DIPS, one (1) was a site of a paranormal event, and one (l) was an ancient Indian ritual site. There were also seven (7) sites at which three lines intersected each other. Of these, one (l) was a landing site, two (2) were CEs, three (3) were paranormal events, and one (l) was the triple IFO intersection point discussed above in the text, where Venus had been described as a flaming orb which repeatedly zoomed toward the witness' home.

There were also three (3) instances where four lines intersected each other. Those three instances represent the following two close encounters in Temple City Druffel, A.: "Magnetic Anomalies and UFO Flight - Part II", MUFON UFO Journal, June 1980, n° 148, pp. 15-17. and the black object viewed over a Burbank freeway, which was described in a recent MUFON UFO JOURNAL Druffel, A.: "An Urban Problem: Very Close Encounters with UFOs,, MUFON UFO Journal, December 1981, n° 166, pp. 13-15..

In view of the fact that Aime Michel, in his original orthotenic study, theorized that sightings of particular interest, i.e., cloud cigars, were seen at the intersections of straight lines, one might speculate that the multi-line intersection points described above might indicate sites on the earth where the flow of the (hypothetical) unidentified earth energy is particularly strong.

No analysis was made of the intersection points of the minor (combined interest) lines, although these, too, were numerous. The most striking fact about the intersection points on both major and minor lines was that twenty-two (22) out of the twenty-three (23) lines all intersected numerous other lines. The sole exception was the Palm Springs-Tahquitz Rock line, which intersected two other lines at the extreme eastern edge of the map.


This study is a preliminary one, based on only a fraction of cases in this area suitable for plotting. Further study might strengthen the findings and add credence to some of the hypotheses and speculations mentioned in the text. It is doubtful whether further study of Southern California sightings would weaken or disprove the conclusions of this study, however, as the results seem to give striking evidence that a straight-line phenomenon related to UFO reports exists in Southern California.


Reviewing the total study in its entirety, including the following results were found:

  1. The sites of UFO-related events in Southern California (in cases where the unidentified object or alleged UFO entity was in close proximity to the witness(es) lie along locations on the Earth in such a manner that a straight line can be drawn to connect them.
  2. The sites of multi-point intersections of these lines are locations where particularly bizarre UFO events occurred, that is, "landings" and close encounters with large, apparently physical UFO-type craft in heavily-settled residential areas and over major highways and freeways of a large city.
  3. Except for one (1) due N-S line, all lines discovered were deviated, to more or less degree, from the four main compass points.
  4. Close-proximity IFOs also lay on the straight lines, and at the intersection of three straight lines a particularly bizarre misidentification of a conventional object was reported.
  5. The vast majority (16 out of 17) paranormal events plotted also lay on the straight lines, strengthening the hypothesis of many researchers that paranormal events are in some way associated with UFO occurrences.

An Added Speculation

Acting on various information in UFO literature, some of which is scientific theorizing FLYING SAUCERS AND THE STRAIGHT-LINE MYSTERY, by Aime Michel, (Planner's theory), pp. 26, 136, 163., and some apparently intuitional Finch, Bernard E. (Dr): "The UFO 'Gate' Theory", FSR`, Vol. 26, No. 1, Spring 1980., I speculate that the hypothetical energy apparently emanating along orthotenic and ley lines might be gravitic in nature. It is further speculated that UFO sightings and other unusual events associated with these "lines of energy" might manifest at times of greater gravitational pull, due for example to the closer passages of Mars (a planet of greater relative density than earth and of high iron content), and possibly also the influence of other astronomical bodies in their closer conjunctions with the earth.

The methodology used in this study is a simple one, which can be employed by any investigator or researcher with a backlog of close encounter cases, UFO landings, and entity reports, and who has enough interest in the straight-line phenomenon to devote sufficient time and energy to such study. Results from other researchers are eagerly awaited, as lines discovered might connect with lines found by others in their own localities.