Agile Modeling ou Agile Methodologies. Egalement lié est
le Agile Manifesto.
Définir des processus de développement logiciel légers et plus réactifs que prédictifs.
Le but de l'AM est de renverser les priorités habituelles, en privilégieant :
- les individus et les interactions plutôt que les processus et les outils ;
- le travail sur le logiciel plutôt qu'une documentation détaillée ;
- la collaboration avec le client plutôt que la négociation de contrat ;
- la réactivité au changement plutôt que le suivi d'un planning établi ;
L'AM réunit un ensemble de :
- Communication : Les modèles promeuvent la communication entre votre équipe et MOA comme entre les développeurs de votre équipe.
- Simplicité : Les modèles sont critiques pour simplifier le logiciel comme le processus de
développement — il est plus facile d'explorer une idée, et de l'améliorer alors que votre compréhension
s'améliore, en dessinant un diagramme ou deux au lieu d'écrire des dizaines voire même des centaines de lignes
- Retour (feedback) :
L'optimisme est un mal de la programmation, le retour est le
traitement. En communiquant vos idées au travers de diagrammes, vous obtenez un retour rapide, vous
permettant d'agir sur la base de ces conseils.
- Courage : Prendre des décisions importantes comme changer de direction quitte à perdre ou réécrire
votre travail lorsque vos décisions se révèlent avoir été innapropriées ;
- Humilité : Ne pas penser tout connaître, et reconnaître que les autres développeurs, les clients, et
l'ensemble des parties impliquées dans un projet ont leurs propres domaines de compétences et une valeur à
apporter au projet. Chacun à une valeur égale sur le projet et doit être traité avec le même respect.
- Principes :
- Supposez la simplicité. Lorsque vous développez, vous devez supposer que la solution la plus simple
est la meilleure. Ne sur-construisez pas votre logiciel, ou dans le cas d'AM ne dépeignez dans vos modèles pas
des fonctionnalités supplémentaires dont vous n'avez pas besoin aujourd'hui. Ayez le courage that you don't
need to over-model your system today, that you can model based on your existing requirements today and
refactor your system in the future when your requirements evolve. Keep your models as simple as possible.
- Accepter le changement. Les besoins comme la compréhension des besoins évoluent au cours du temps. La
MOA peut les faire évoluer alors que votre projet avance, de nouvelles personnes peuvent arriver et d'autres
peuvent partir. La MOA peut tout aussi bien changer son point de vue, modifiant ainsi potentiellement les
objectifs et les critères de succès de votre effort. The implication is that your project's environment
changes as your efforts progress, and that as a result your approach to development must reflect this reality.
- Permettre le prochain effort est votre second but. Votre projet peut être considéré comme un échec
même si vous livrez un système qui fonctionne – une partie de la réponse aux besoins de la MOA est de
s'assurer que votre système est suffisament robuste pour être étendu par la suite. Comme Alistair Cockburn aime à le dire,
lorsque vous jouez au jeu
du développement logiciel, votre second but est de préparer la prochaine partie. Ce prochain effort
pourra être la prochaine version majeure du système plus simplement les opérations et le support de la version
que vous êtes en train de réaliser. To enable it you will not only want to develop quality software but also
create just enough documentation and supporting materials so that the people playing the next game can be
effective. Factors that you need to consider include whether members of your existing team will be involved
with the next effort, the nature of the next effort itself, and the importance of the next effort to your
organization. In short, when you are working on your system you need to keep an eye on the future.
- Changement incrémental : Un concept important à comprendre à propos de la modélisation est que vous
n'avez pas à trouver la bonne dès la première fois ; en fait, il très improbable que vous puissiez le faire
même en essayant. Furthermore, you do not need to capture every single detail in your models, you just need to
get it good enough at the time. Instead of futilely trying to develop an all encompassing model at the start,
you instead can put a stake in the ground by developing a small model, or perhaps a high-level model, and
evolve it over time (or simply discard it when you no longer need it) in an incremental manner.
- Maximiser l'implication de la MOA. La MOA investit dans des ressources - temps, argent,
logistique, etc. - pour obtenir un logiciel qui répond à ses besoins. Stakeholders deserve to invest their
resources the best way possible and not to have resources frittered away by your team. Furthermore, they
deserve to have the final say in how those resources are invested or not invested. If it was your resources,
would you want it any other way?
- Modéliser dans un but : De nombreux développeurs sont attentifs à ce que leurs artefacts - modèles,
code source ou documents - soient suffisament détaillés, pas trop détaillés, ou suffisament précis. Ce qu'ils
ne font pas est de prendre du recul et se demander pourquoi et pour qui ils créent cet artefact. With respect
to modeling, perhaps you need to understand an aspect of your software better, perhaps you need to communicate
your approach to senior management to justify your project, or perhaps you need to create documentation that
describes your system to the people who will be operating and/or maintaining/evolving it over time. If you
cannot identify why and for whom you are creating a model then why are you bothering to work on it all? Your
first step is to identify a valid purpose for creating a model and the audience for that model, then based on
that purpose and audience develop it to the point where it is both sufficiently accurate and sufficiently
detailed. Once a model has fulfilled its goals you're finished with it for now and should move on to something
else, such as writing some code to show that the model works. This principle also applies to a change to an
existing model: if you are making a change, perhaps applying a known pattern, then you should have a valid
reason to make that change (perhaps to support a new requirement or to refactor your work to something
cleaner). An important implication of this principle is that you need to know your audience, even when that
audience is yourself. For example, if you are creating a model for maintenance developers, what do they really
need ? Do they need a 500 page comprehensive document or would a 10 page overview of how everything works be
sufficient ? Don't know ? Go talk to them and find out.
- Plusieurs modèles : Vous avez potentiellement besoin d'utiliser plusieurs modèles pour développer
votre logiciel parce que chacun de ces modèles décrira un aspect donné de votre logiciel. “Quels modèles
sont potentiellement nécessaire pour build modern-day business applications?” Considering the complexity
of modern day software, you need to have a wide range of techniques in your intellectual modeling toolkit to
be effective. An important point is that you don't need to develop all of these models for any given system,
but that depending on the exact nature of the software you are developing you will require at least a subset
of the models. Different systems, different subsets. Just like every fixit job at home doesn't require you to
use every tool available to you in your toolbox, over time the variety of jobs you perform will require you to
use each tool at some point. Just like you use some tools more than others, you will use some types of models
more than others.
- Travail de qualité : Personne n'aime le travail bâclé. Ceux qui le font ne l'aiment pas parce que ce
n'est pas quelque chose dont ils peuvent être fiers, et ceux qui viennent plus tard pour le refactorer (pour
une raison ou une autre) ne l'aiment pas parce que c'est plus difficile à comprendre et à modifier, et les
utilisateurs finaux n'aimeront pas le travail parce qu'il sera probablement instable et ne correspondra pas à
- Retour rapide : Le temps entre une action et le retour sur cette action est critique. En travaillant
avec d'autres personnes sur un modèle, particularly when you are working with a shared modeling technology
(such as a whiteboard, CRC cards, or essential modeling materials such as sticky notes) you are obtaining
near-instant feedback on your ideas. Working closely with your customer, to understand the requirements, to
analyze those requirements, or to develop a user interface that meets their needs, provides opportunities for
- Le logiciel comme but premier. L'objectif du développement logiciel est de produire un
logiciel qui répond efficacement aux besoins de la MOA. Le but premier n'est pas de produire une documentation
extérieurs, des artefacts de gestion de projet extérieurs, ou même des modèles. Toute activité qui ne
contribue pas directement à ce but premier doit être mise en question et évitée si elle ne peut être justifiée
à cette occasion.
- Travel Light. Every artifact that you create, and then decide to keep, will need to be maintained
over time. If you decide to keep seven models, then whenever a change occurs (a new/updated requirement, a new
approach is taken by your team, a new technology is adopted, ...) you will need to consider the impact of that
change on all seven models and then act accordingly. If you decide to keep only three models then you clearly
have less work to perform to support the same change, making you more agile because you are traveling lighter.
Similarly, the more complex/detailed your models are, the more likely it is that any given change will be
harder to accomplish (the individual model is "heavier" and is therefore more of a burden to maintain). Every
time you decide to keep a model you trade-off agility for the convenience of having that information available
to your team in an abstract manner (hence potentially enhancing communication within your team as well as with
project stakeholders). Never underestimate the seriousness of this trade-off. Someone trekking across the
desert will benefit from a map, a hat, good boots, and a canteen of water they likely won't make it if they
burden themselves with hundreds of gallons of water, a pack full of every piece of survival gear imaginable,
and a collection of books about the desert. Similarly, a development team that decides to develop and maintain
a detailed requirements document, a detailed collection of analysis models, a detailed collection of
architectural models, and a detailed collection of design models will quickly discover they are spending the
majority of their time updating documents instead of writing source code.
- (optionnel) Le contenu est plus important que la représentation. Any given model could have several
ways to represent it. For example, a UI specification could be created using Post-It notes on a large sheet of
paper (an essential or low-fidelity prototype), as a sketch on paper or a whiteboard, as a "traditional"
prototype built using a prototyping tool or programming language, or as a formal document including both a
visual representation as well as a textual description of the UI. An interesting implication is that a model
does not need to be a document. Even a complex set of diagrams created using a CASE tool may not become part
of a document, instead they are used as inputs into other artifacts, very likely source code, but never
formalized as official documentation. The point is that you take advantage of the benefits of modeling without
incurring the costs of creating and maintaining documentation.
- (optionnel) Chacun peut apprendre de l'autre : You can never truly master something, there is always
opportunity to learn more and to extend your knowledge. Take the opportunity to work with and learn from
others, to try new ways of doing things, to reflect on what seems to work and what doesn't. Technologies
change rapidly, existing technologies such as Java evolve at a blinding pace and new technologies such as C#
and .NET are introduced regularly. Existing development techniques evolve at a slower pace but they still
evolve -- As an industry we've understood the fundamentals of testing for quite awhile although we are
constantly improving our understanding through research and practice. The point to be made is that we work in
an industry where change is the norm, where you must take every opportunity to learn new ways of doing things
through training, education, mentoring, reading, and working with each other.
- (optionnel) Connaissez vos modèles : Because you have multiple models that you can apply you need to
know their strengths and weaknesses to be effective in their use.
- (optionnel) Connaissez vos outils : Software, such as diagramming tools or modeling tools, have a
variety of features. If you are going to use a modeling tool then you should understand its features, knowing
when and when not to use them.
- Local Adaptation. Your approach to software development must reflect your environment,
including the nature of your organization, the nature of your project stakeholders, and the nature of your
project itself. Issues that could be affected include: the modeling techniques that you apply (perhaps your
users insist on concrete user interfaces instead of initial sketches or essential prototypes); the tools that
you use (perhaps there isn't a budget for a digital camera, or you already have licenses for an existing CASE
tool); and the software process that you follow (your organization insists on XP, or RUP, or their own
process). You will adapt your approach at both the project level as well as the individual level. For example,
some developers use one set of tools over another, some focus on coding with very little modeling whereas
others prefer to invest a little more time modeling.
- (optionnel) Communication ouverte et honnête : People need to be free, and to perceive that they are
free, to offer suggestions. This includes ideas pertaining to one or more models, perhaps someone has a new
way to approach a portion of the design or has a new insight regarding a requirement; the delivery of bad news
such as being behind schedule; or simply the current status of their work. Open and honest communication
enables people to make better decisions because the quality of the information that they are basing them on is
- (optionnel) Travailler avec l'instinct des gens : When someone feels that something isn't going to
work, that a few things are inconsistent with one another, or that something doesn't "smell right" then there
is a good chance that that is actually the case. As you gain experience developing software your instincts
become sharper, and what your instincts are telling you subconsciously can often be an important input into
your modeling efforts. If your instincts tell you that a requirement doesn't make sense or it isn't complete
investigate it with your users. If your instincts tell you that a portion of your architecture isn't going to
meet your needs build a quick technical end-to-end prototype to test out your theory. If your instincts tell
you that design alternative A is better than design alternative B, and there is no compelling reason to choose
either one of them, then go with alternative A for now. It's important to understand that the value of courage
tells you that should assume you can remedy the situation at some point in the future if you discover your
instincts were wrong.
- Pratiques :
- Participation active des parties : An expansion of XP's On-Site Customer which describes the need to
have on-site access to users that have the authority and ability to provide information pertaining to the
system being built and to make pertinent and timely decisions regarding the requirements, and prioritization
thereof. AM expands XP's On-Site Customer practice to have project stakeholders -- including direct users,
their management, senior management, operations staff, and support (help desk) staff -- actively involved in
the project. This includes making timely resourcing decisions by senior management, public and private support
for the project by senior management, active participation of operations and support staff in the development
of requirements and models pertaining to their respective areas.
- Appliquer les bons artefacts : Each artifact has its own specific applications. For example, a UML
activity diagram is useful for describing a business process, whereas the static structure of your database is
better represented by a physical data or persistence model. Very often a diagram is a better choice than
source code -- If a picture is worth a thousand words then a model is often worth 1024 lines of code when
applied in the right circumstances (a term borrowed from Karl Wieger’s Software Requirements) because you
can often explore design alternatives more effectively by drawing a couple diagrams on whiteboards with your
peers than you can by sitting down and developing code samples. The implication is that you need to know the
strengths and weaknesses of each type of artifact so you know when and when not to use them. Note that this
can be very difficult because you have Multiple Models available to you, in fact the essay Artifacts For Agile
Modeling: The UML and Beyond lists over 30 types of models and it is by no means definitive.
- Propriété collective : Everyone can work on any model, and in fact any artifact on the project, if
they need to.
- Considérer la testabilité : When you are modeling you should be constantly asking yourself "How are
we going to test this?" because if you can't test the software that you are building you shouldn't be building
it. Modern software processes include testing and quality assurance activities throughout the entire project
lifecycle, and some even promote the concept of writing tests first before writing software (this is an XP
- Créer plusieurs modèles en parallèle : Parce que chaque type de modèle a ses forces et faiblesses, un
seul modèle ne suffit pas à vos besoins de modélisation. Par exemple lorsque vous explorez les besoins vous
pouvez avoir besoin de développer des cas d'utilisation ou
user stories, un prototype d'IHM, des règles métiers essentiels. In combination with the practice of
iterating to another artifact les modéliseurs agiles découvriront souvent qu'ils sont bien plus productifs
lorsqu'ils travaillent sur divers modèles en même temps que s'ils se concentraient sur un seul à chaque fois.
- Créer un contenu simple : You should keep the actual content of your models -- your requirements,
your analysis, your architecture, or your design -- as simple as you possibly can while still fulfilling the
needs of your project stakeholders. The implication is that you should not add additional aspects to your
models unless they are justifiable -- if you do not have a requirement to add system auditing features then
don't add that features to your models. Have the courage to trust that you can in fact add this feature when,
and if, it is ever asked of you. This is along the lines of XP's practice of Simple Design.
- Dépeindre les modèles simplement : When you consider the potential diagrams that you could apply (UML
diagrams, user interface diagrams, data models, and so on) you quickly realize that the majority of the time
you only require a subset of the diagramming notation available to you. A simple model that shows the key
features that you are trying to understand, perhaps a class model depicting the primary responsibilities of
classes and the relationships between them, often proves to be sufficient. Yes, you could model all the
scaffolding code that you will need to write, all the getter and setter operations that your coding standards
tell you to use, but what value would that add? Very little.
- Affichez vos modèles à la vue de tous. Vous devriez montrer vos modèles publiquement,
souvent sur ce que l'on appelle un "mur de modélisation" ou "mur des merveilles". Cela soutient le principe de
Communication Ouverte et Honnête dans votre équipe parce que l'ensemble des modèles en cours leur sont
rapidement accessibles, ainsi qu'à votre MOA parce que vous ne leur cachez rien. Your modeling wall is where
you post your models for everyone to see; the modeling wall should be accessible to your development team and
other project stakeholders. Your modeling wall may be physical, perhaps a designated whiteboard for your
architecture diagram(s) or a place where you tape a printout of your physical data model. Modeling walls can
be virtual, such as an internal Web page that is updated with scanned images. See Ellen Gottesdiener's
Specifying Requirements With a Wall of Wonder for a similar viewpoint.
- Itérez sur un autre artefact. Lorsque vous travaillez sur un artefact de développement --
comme un cas d'utilisation, une carte CRC, un diagramme de
séquence ou même du code source -- and find that you are stuck then you
should consider working on another artifact for the time being. Each artifact has its strengths and
weaknesses, each artifact is good for a certain type of job. Whenever you find you are having difficulties
working on one artifact, perhaps you are working on a use
case and find that you are struggling to describe the business logic, then that's a sign that you should
iterate to another artifact. For example, if you are working on an essential use case then you may want to
consider changing focus to start working on an essential UI prototype, a CRC model, a business rule, a system
use case, or a change case. By iterating to another artifact you immediately become "unstuck" because you are
making progress working on that other artifact. Furthermore, by changing your point of view you often discover
that you address whatever it was that causing you to be stuck in the first place.
- Modéliser par petits incréments : Le développement incrémental qui organise un vaste effort en plus
petites portions diffusées au fil du projet, normalement en incréments de quelques semaines ou d'un mois ou
deux, accroit votre agilité en permettant de mettre plus vite le logiciel dans les mains des utilisateurs.
- Modéliser avec les autres : When you Model With a Purpose you often find that you are modeling to
understand something, that you are modeling to communicate your ideas to others, or you are seeking to develop
a common vision on your project. This is a group activity, one in which you want the input of several people
working together effectively. You will often find that your development team needs to work together to create
the core set of models critical to your project. For example, to develop the metaphor or architecture for you
system, you will often need to model with a group of people to develop a solution everyone agrees on as well
as one that is as simple as possible. Most of the time the best way to do this is to talk the issue through
with one or more people.
- Prouver par le code : A model is an abstraction, one that should accurately reflect an aspect of
whatever you are building. But will it work? To determine so, you should prove your model with code. You've
developed a sketch of an HTML page for accepting billing address information? Code it and show the resulting
user interface to your users for feedback. You've developed a UML sequence diagram representing the logic to
implement a complex business rule? Write the testing code, the business code, and run the tests to ensure that
you've gotten it right. Never forget that with an iterative approach to software development, the norm for the
vast majority of projects, that modeling is only one of many tasks that you will perform. Do some modeling, do
some coding, do some testing (amongst other things).
- Utiliser les outils les plus simples : The vast majority of models can be drawn on a whiteboard, on
paper or even the back of a napkin. Whenever you want to save one of these diagrams you can take a picture of
it with a digital camera, or even simply transcribe it onto paper. This works because most diagrams are
throwaways; their true value comes from drawing them to think through an issue, and once the issue is resolved
the diagram doesn’t offer much value. As a result a whiteboard and markers are often your best modeling
tool alternative: Use a drawing tool to create diagrams to present to important project stakeholders and
occasionally use a modeling tool if and only if they provide value to my programming efforts such as the
generation of code. Think of it like this: If you’re creating simple models, often models that are
throwaways because if you are modeling to understand you likely don’t need to keep the model(s) around
any more once you do understand the issue, then you likely don’t need to apply a complex modeling tool.
- (optionnel) Apply Modeling Standards : This practice is renamed from XP's Coding Standards, the basic
idea is that developers should agree to and follow a common set of modeling standards on a software project.
Just like there is value in following common coding conventions, clean code that follows your chosen coding
guidelines is easier to understand and evolve than code that doesn't, there is similar value in following
common modeling conventions. There is a wide variety of common modeling standards available to you, including
the Object Management Group's Unified Modeling Language (UML) which defines the notation and semantics for
common object-oriented models. The UML provides a good start but it isn't sufficient -- as you can see in Be
Realistic About The UML not all possible modeling artifacts are encompassed by the UML. Furthermore, it says
nothing about modeling style guidelines to create clean-looking diagrams. What is the difference between a
style guideline and a standards. WRT to source code, a standard would be to name attributes in the format
attributeName whereas a style guideline is to indent the code within a control structure (an if statement, a
loop, ...) by one unit. WRT to models, a standard would be to use a square rectangle to model a class on a
class diagram and a style guideline would be to have subclasses placed on diagrams to the south of their
- (optionnel) Apply Patterns Gently : Effective modelers learn and then appropriately apply common
architectural, design and analysis patterns in their models. However, as Martin Fowler points out in Is Design
Dead? developers should consider easing into the application of a pattern, to apply it gently. This reflects
the value of simplicity. In other words, if you SUSPECT that a pattern applies you should model it in such a
way as to implement the minimal amount you need today but that makes it easy to refactor it later when it is
clear that applying the full-fledged pattern is in fact the simplest approach possible. In other words, don't
over model. For example, you may recognize a good spot in your design to apply the GoF's Strategy pattern, but
at the current moment you only have two algorithms to implement. The simplest approach might be to encapsulate
each strategy in its own class and build an operation that chooses them appropriately and passes them the
appropriate input. This is a partial implementation of Strategy that leaves you in a position to refactor your
design if more algorithms need to be implemented, yet does not require you to build all the scaffolding that
Strategy requires -- an approach that enables you to ease into application of the pattern.
- (optionnel) Supprimer les modèles temporaires : The vast majority of the models that you create are
temporary/working models -- design sketches, low fidelity prototypes, index cards, potential
architecture/design alternatives, and so on -- models that have fulfilled their purpose but no longer add
value now that they have done so. Models quickly become out of sync with the code, and there is nothing wrong
with that. You must then make the decision to synchronize the models if doing so adds value to your project or
to simply discard them because the investment to update the models won't be recouped by the value of having
done so (there's negative payback).
- (optionnel) Formaliser des modèles contractuels : Contract models are often required when an external
group controls an information resource that your system requires, such as a database, legacy application or
information service. A contract model is something that both parties should mutually agree to and mutually
change over time if required. Examples of contract models include the detailed documentation of an application
programming interface (API), a file layout description, an XML DTD or a physical data model describing a
shared database. As with a legal contract, a contract model often requires you to invest significant resources
to develop and maintain the contract to ensure that it’s accurate and sufficiently detailed. Your goal is
to minimize the number of contract models for your system to conform to the XP principle of traveling light.
Note that you will almost always use an electronic tool to develop a contract model because the model must be
maintained over time.
- (optionnel) Modéliser pour communiquer. A secondary reason to model is to communicate with people
external to your team or to create a contract model. Because the customers for some models are outside your
team, you may need to invest the time to make your model(s) look “pretty” by using electronic tools
such as word processors, drawing packages or even sophisticated CASE tools.
- (optionnel) Modéliser pour la compréhension : The most important application of modeling is to
explore the problem space, to identify and analyze the requirements for the system, or to compare and contrast
potential design alternatives to identify the potentially most simple solution that meets the requirements.
Following this practice you often develop small, simple diagrams that focuses on one aspect of your software,
such as the life cycle of a class or the flow between screens, diagrams that you often throwaway once you are
finished with them.
Reuse Existing Resources. There is a wealth of information that agile modelers can
take advantage from. For example, perhaps some analysis or design patterns are appropriate for you to apply
gently to your system. Or perhaps you can take advantage of an existing enterprise requirements model,
business process models, physical data models or even models of how systems are currently deployed within your
user community. It’s true that these models either don’t exist or are out of date in many
organizations, although you’re often likely to uncover reasonably accurate models with a bit of research.
- (optionnel) Mettre à jour seulement si cela pose problème : You should update a model only when you
absolutely need to, when not having the model updated is more painful than the effort of updating it. With
this approach you discover that you update a smaller number of models than you would have in the past because
the reality is that your models don't have to be perfect to provide value. The street map that I have to my
town is over five years old, I know this because my own street doesn't appear on it and it's been in place for
a little over five years, yet the map is still useful to me. Yes, I could purchase an updated map, one comes
out every year, but why bother? Missing a few streets isn't painful enough to warrant this investment, it
simply doesn't make sense to spend the money to purchase a new map every year when the one that I have is good
enough. Too much time and money is wasted trying to keep models and documents in sync with source code, an
impossible task to begin with, time and money that could be better spent developing new software.
- (complémentaire) Remaniement (refactoring). C'est une pratique de codage dans laquelle vous
effectuez de petits changements, nommés remaniements, sur votre code pour répondre à de nouveaux besoins ou
pour maintenir votre conception aussi simple que possible. Du point de vue AM cette pratique garanti que votre
conception reste claire et nette lorsque vous travaillez sur votre code. Le remaniement est une partie
essentielle de XP.
- (complémentaire) Conception par tests préliminaires : C'est une pratique de développement où vous
considérez en premier puis codez vos cas de tests avant d'écrire votre code métier. Du point de vue AM cette
pratique vous force à concevoir avant d'écrire votre code, éliminant le besoin d'une modélisation détaillée.
Le conception par tests préliminaires est une partie essentielle de XP.
- Parfois appelés "processus légers"
- Réputés adapté aux petits projets seulements, ce que les défenseurs de l'Agile Manifesto contestent ;
- La force des modèles AM est de ne pas chercher à être parfaits, mais juste corrects. AM peut s'appliquer
indifféremment à l'étude des besoins, l'architecture, conception.
- Preuves à faire sur de grands projets.
Des exemples de méthodes agiles sont :